Challenges to the Multi-Functional Uses and Multifarious Benefits of Urban Green Spaces: Basis of Urban Biodiversity Planning and Management in the City of Manila, Philippines

Leonora Gonzales, Dina Magnaye

Abstract

Urbanization is a global phenomenon which is projected by the United Nations to grow annually at 65 million between 2000 and 2030 in developing countries. As an archipelagic nation, the Philippines is considered as a highly urbanized nation where over three-fourths of its population is estimated to reside in urban areas, posting a proportion of one person residing in rural area for every three in urban area. The National Capital Region (NCR), the core region of the counry, registers a 100% urbanization level and where the most densely populated areas converged. It generally exhibits an urban population growth rate that exceeds the national growth rate. Manila, the capital city of the Philippines, is the second largest and the world’s most densely populated city given its small land area and huge human population. The concentration of people in this city and the urbanization processes are foreseen to create environmental stress leading to potential biodiversity losses coupled with other urban environmental occurrences such as flooding, air pollution, sea level rise, earthquake, subsidence, traffic congestion, water pollution, among others. These natural and man-made hazards pose challenge to the multi-functional uses and various benefits of urban green spaces (UGS). UGS play a significant role in enhancing the quality and resiliency of the environment as well as in improving the health and general well being of city dwellers. It is in this context that the challenges and opportunities of UGS are examined. The paper attempts to identify and determine the factors that influence UGS as basis for urban biodiversity planning and management.

Keywords

urban biodiversity; urban green space; green space; urban biodiversity planning and management; urbanization; urban ecosystem.

References

. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables. 2015. Working Paper No. ESA/P/WP.241.

Annez PC, Buckly RM. Urbanization and growth: setting the context. In: Spence M, Annez PC, Buckley RM, editors. Urbanization and Growth. Commission on Growth and Development. The World Bank. 2009; p. 1-46.

United Nations. Convention on Biological Diversity. Article 2. p.3.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Overview of the Philippine biodiversity strategy and action plan.

Altieri M. The ecological role of biodiversity in agroecosystems. Journal of Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 1999; 74:19-31.

Benn J. What is biodiversity? United Nations Environmental Program. 2010; p. 2.

Hardman S. How does urbanization affect biodiversity? Ecologica: Evolution, Ecology, Animal Behaviour, Conservation. Available at https://ecologicablog.wordpress.com/2011/11/06/how-does-urbanization-affect-biodiversity-part-one/.

Davis DE. Exploring the effects of urbanization on biodiversity in remnant forests of the Charlotte metropolitan region. Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina. p. 2.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources – Biodiversity Management Bureau. The fifth national report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Foundation for the Philippine Environment and Philippine Tropical Forest Conservation Foundation, Inc. 2014.

Asian Development Bank. Republic of the Philippines national urban assessment. 2014; 97: 5-7.

Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Cities and biodiversity outlook. Montreal; 2012; p. 8.

Vold T, Buffett DA. Ecological concepts, principles and applications to conservation. BC. 2008; 46: 2-3. Available at www.biodiversitybc.org.

United Nations Environmental Program. Payments for ecosystem services: getting started. Forest Trends, The Katoomba Group and UNEP. 2008; 74: 2.

Savard, JL, Clergeu P, Mennechez G. Biodiversity concepts and urban ecosystem. Landscape and Urban Planning 1999; 48: 3-4.

Adams LW. Urban wildlife habitats: a landscape perspective. University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis, MN. 186 pp.

Middleton J. Effects of urbanization on biodiversity in Canada. In: Biodiversity in Canada: A Science Assessment for Environment Canada. Environment. Canada 1994: p.15-20.

Vale TR, Vale GR. Suburban bird populations in west-central California. Journal of Biogeography 2008; 3: 157-165.

Luniak M. The development of bird communities in new housing estates in Warsaw. Memorabilia Zoologica 1994; 49: 257-267.

Kowarik, I. On the role of alien species in urban flora and vegetation. In: Pysek P, Prach K, and Wade M, editors. Plant Invasions – General Aspects and Special Problems. The Hague SPB Academic Publishing; 1995, p. 85-103.

McKinney ML. Urbanization, biodiversity and conservation. In: Bioscience. Vol 52 No. 10; 2002.

Blair RB. Birds and butterflies along urban gradients in two ecoregions of the Unite States. In: Lockwood JL, McKinney ML, editorss. Biotic Homogenization. Norwell (MA): Kluwer. 2001; p. 33-56.

Czech B, Krausman PR, Devers PK. Economic associations among causes of species endangerment in the United States. BioScience 2000; 50: 593–601.

University of Leeds. A brief guide to the benefits of urban green spaces. Leeds Ecosystem, Atmosphere and Forest (LEAF) Center, United Bank of Carbon and Sustainable Cities Group. United Kingdom. Undated.

Heinze J. Benefits of green space. Environmental Health Research Foundation. Chantilly VA. 2011.

Karuppanan S, Baharuddin ZM, Sivam A, Daniels CB. Urban green space and urban biodiversity: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Journal of Sustainable Deveopment. Canadian Center of Science and Education 2014; 16: 1-2.

Local Government of Manila. Manila City Comprehensive Land Use Plan and Zoning Ordinance 2005-2020; 2006.

Dayan MdP, Rosalinda SR, Dolora BB. Indigenous forest tree species in Laguna Province. Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau – Department of Environment and Natural Resources. 2006; 24: 2.

Lee ACK, Jordan HC, Horsley J. Value of urban green spaces in promoting healthy living and wellbeing: prospects from planning. Risk Management Healthcare Policy. 2015; 8: 131-137.

Tuli SM, Islam N. Impact of vegetation in urban open spaces in Dhaka City; in terms of air temperature. 30th International PLEA Conference. December 16-18 2014, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. 8pp.

Mississippi Wildlife, Fisheries, & Parks. Basal area: A guide for understanding the relationships between pine forests and wildlife habitat. Private Lands Habitat Program. Undated. Available at http://www.mdwfp.com/media/56079/basal_area_guide.pdf.

Simberloff, D. Introduced species: the threat to biodiversity and what can be done. ActionBioscience.org. Available at http://www.actionbioscience.org/biodiversity/simberloff.html.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.21625/essd.v1i1.33

DOI (PDF): http://dx.doi.org/10.21625/essd.v1i1.33.g9

Refbacks

Copyright (c) 2016 International Journal of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development.