Sustainable Urban Development: Bioregionalistic Vision for Small Towns


  • C K Surekha Assistant Professor, School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal, India



Bioregionalism, region, small town, sustainable


Cities and towns are the social constructs in regional settings. They physically manifest and exist as power centres through various layers of culture, economy, politics, and religion. There was a symbiotic relationship between the ‘setting’ and the ‘construct’ in the past. With time and advent of technology, haphazard developments led to degradation of ecological systems and have become a confronted affair. Global warming, its adverse effects and the constant references to the words ‘sustainability’ and ‘resilience’ pose questions on the existing planning models. Small towns experiencing a tremendous pressure of urbanisation and rich in natural resources, coherence and identity are fast changing. An indispensable change in the planning models is necessary to mitigate this existential crisis and condition the emerging urbanism in small towns sustainably. This paper unearths the role and possibilities of bioregional planning as a sustainable urban development paradigm and suggests few indicative parameters for envisioning bioregionalism in small towns.


Aberley, D. (2005). Interpreting Bioregionalism. In McGinnis, M.V. (ed.), Bioregionalism.13-42. Routledge.

Aberley, D. (1993). Boundaries of Home: Mapping for local empowerment, Gabriola Island. New Society Publishers.

Aberley, D., Harrington, S., Dunn, M., Penn, B., Turner, B.L., & Penn, M.G. (1999). Giving the land a voice : mapping our home places.

Achal, Varenyam., Mukherjee, Abhijit. (2019). Ecological Wisdom Inspired Restoration Engineering. Springer.

Adams, J.D. (2013). Theorizing a Sense of Place in a Transnational Community. Children, Youth and Environments, 23, 43.

Agergaard, J., Kirkegaard, S., & Birch-Thomsen, T. (2021). Between Village and Town: Small-Town Urbanism in Sub-Saharan Africa. Sustainability, 13(3), 1417.

Agrawal, A., Gibson, C. C. (1999) Enchantment and disenchantment: the role of 'community' in natural resource conservation, World Development, 27 (4), 629-649.

Archer, K. (1993). Regions as Social Organisms: The Lamarckian Characteristics of Vidal de la Blache’s Regional Geography. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83(3), 498–514.

Aspeslagh, Wim. (1994). Carrying Capacity and Its Application to the Portland Metropolitan Area. The Future Vision Commission Portland, Oregon.

Asian Development Bank. (2008). Annual report.

Atkinson, Adrian., (1992). The urban bioregion as a ‘sustainable development’paradigm.Third World Planning Review. Vol 14, No 4.

Ayazli, I. E., Kilic, F., Lauf, S., Demir, H., Kleinschmit, B. (2015). Simulating urban growth driven by transportation networks: A case study of the Istanbul third bridge. Land Use Policy, vol. 49, 332–340.

Beatley, Timothy., (2011). Biophilic Cities: Integrating Nature into Urban Design and Planning. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Berg, Peter. The bioregional approach for sustainable cities,

Berg, Peter., Dasmann, Raymond. (1977). Reinhabiting California. The Ecologist 7, no. 10.

Berry, T. (1998). The Dream of the Earth. San Francisco. Sierra Club Books.

Bibri, S.E. (2020). The eco-city and its core environmental dimension of sustainability: green energy technologies and their integration with data-driven smart solutions. Energy Informatics.

Bibri, Simon., Krogstie, John. (2017). Smart Sustainable Cities of the Future: An Extensive Interdisciplinary Literature Review. Sustainable Cities and Society.

Bibri, S.E. (2021). Data-driven smart sustainable cities of the future: An evidence synthesis approach to a comprehensive state-of-the-art literature review. Sustainable Futures, Volume 3.

Bibri, S.E. (2020). Compact urbanism and the synergic potential of its integration with data-driven smart urbanism: An extensive interdisciplinary literature review. Land use Policy,Vol 97.

Biggs, R., Schlüter, M., and Schoon, M.L. (eds). (2015). Principles for building resilience: Sustaining ecosystem services in social-ecological systems, Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

C Laurie, Ian. (1979). Nature in cities: Natural environment in the design and development of Urban Green areas. John Wiley and sons.

Cappuccio, Silvana Maria. (2009). Bioregionalism as a new development paradigm. International Conference of Territorial Intelligence, Salerno, Italy.

Carrus, G., Bonaiuto, M., Bonnes, M. (2005). Environmental concern, regional identity, and support for protected areas in Italy. Environment and Behavior, 37(2), 237–257.

Cheshmehzangi, A., Flynn, A., Tan-Mullins, M., Xie, L., Deng,W., Mangi, E., Chen,W. (2021). From Eco-urbanism to Eco-Fusion: An Augmented Multi-Scalar Framework in Sustainable Urbanism. Sustainability.

Church, Sarah P. (2014). Exploring Urban Bioregionalism: a synthesis of literature on urban nature and sustainable patterns of urban living. S.A.P.I.EN.S.

Critchley, Peter. (2014). Lewis Mumford Civic Environmentalism and Ecological Regionalism. [e-book] Available through: Academia website,

Critchley, P. (2004). Lewis Mumford and the Search for the Harmonious City,[ebook] Available through: Academia website.

Cronon, W. (1991). Nature’s Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. Norton, New York.

Dale, Ann., Ling, Chris., Newman, Lenore. (2008). Does Place Matter? Sustainable Community Development in Three Canadian Communities. Ethics, Place & Environment, 11:3, 267-281.

Daniels, T. (1999). When city and country collide: Managing growth in the metropolitan fringe. Island Press, Washington D C.

Davila, J. (2016). Foreword, In Simon, David (ed); Rethinking sustainable cities, Accessible, green and fair, Policy Press, UK.

Dehaene, Michiel. (2002). Broadacre city: the city in the eye of the beholder. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, vol. 19, no. 2, 91–109.

del Monte-Luna, Pablo., Brook, Barry., Zetina-Rejón, Manuel., Cruz-Escalona, Víctor., (2004) The carrying capacity of ecosystems. Global Ecology and Biogeography.

Denis, Eric., Zérah, Marie-Hélène. (eds). (2017). Subaltern Urbanisation in India: An Introduction to the Dynamics of Ordinary Towns (Exploring Urban Change in South Asia). Springer.

Diffenderfer, Mark., Birch, Dean., (1997). Bioregionalism: A comparative study of the Adirondacks and the Sierra Nevada. Society & Natural Resources, 10:1, 3-16.

Dodge, J. (1981). Living By Life: Some Bioregional Theory and Practice. CoEvolution Quarterly 32.

Downton, Paul Francis. (2002). Ecopolis, Towards an integrated theory for the design, Development and maintenance of ecological cities. [Doctoral Dissertation], University of Adelaide.

Duží, Barbora., Fanfani, David. (2018). Urban bioregion concept: from theoretical roots to development of an operational framework in the European context. Proceedings of the XXI SIF National Conference | CONFINI, MOVIMENTI, LUOGHI, Policies and projects for the city and territories in transit, Firenze, Italy.

Eanes, Francis., Robinson, Patrick., Silbernagel, Janet. (2018). Effects of Scale and the Biophysical Environment on Sense of Place in Northeastern Wisconsin’s Bioregions. Human Ecology Review: Volume 24, Number 1.

Evanoff, Richard. (2017). Bioregionalism: A Brief Introduction and Overview. The Aoyama Journal of International Politics, Economics and Communication, No. 99.

Fan, Yong., Zhang, Shengdi., He, Zongyi., He, Biao., Yu, Haicong., Ye, Xiaoxiao., Yang, Hao., Zhang, Xiangmin., Chi, Zhifeng., (2018). Spatial Pattern and Evolution of Urban System Based on Gravity Model and Whole Network Analysis in the Huaihe River Basin of China. Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society, vol. 2018, Article ID 3698071.

Foster, C.H.W. (1997). Bioregionalism revisited. Renewable resources journal, 15(3), 6-10.

Foster, C. H. W. (1985). The Cape Cod National Seashore experience: A landmark alliance. The University Press of New England,Hanover, New Hampshire.

Friedmann, J. (1998). The New Political Economy of Planning: The Rise of Civil Society. in M. Douglass and J. Friedmann (eds) Cities for Citizens: Planning and the Rise of Civil Society in a Global Age.19-35. Chichester: Wiley.

Friedmann, John. (1970). Review Symposium : The Economy of Cities. Jane Jacobs. New York: (Random House, 1969) First Published June 1, 1970 Review Article

Friedman, Avi. (2014). Planning small and mid sized towns - Designing and retrofitting for sustainability. Routledge, New York.

Friedman, Avi. (2018). Fundamentals of Sustainable Urban Renewal in Small and Mid-Sized Towns. Springer Science and Business Media LLC.

Giddens, A. (2005). Sociology.(4th edition), Cambridge: Polity Press.

Gifford, R. (2014). Environmental psychology matters. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 541–579.

Gosling, E.,Williams, K. J. H. (2010). Connectedness to nature, place attachment and conservation behaviour: Testing connectedness theory among farmers. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(3), 298–304, 2010.

Grimm, Nancy B., Faeth, Stanley H., Golubiewski, Nancy E., Redman, Charles L., Wu, Jianguo., Bai, Xueme., Briggs, John M., (2008). Global Change and the Ecology of Cities, Science 319.

Haenke, David., Wahl, Daniel Christian. (Mar 19, 2021). Bioregionalism and Ecological Economics.

Hagan, Susannah. (2015). Ecological Urbanism. The architectural review.

Hajer, M. A. (1995). The Politics of Environmental Discourse: Ecological Modernization and the Policy Process. Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Hajer, M. (1996). Ecological modernisation as cultural politics in S. Lash., B. Szerszynski., and B. Wynne (eds). Risk, environment and modernity: Towards a new ecology, London: Sage, 246–69.

Hamilton, Kyraleigh. (2007). Bioregionalism in a UK context:the interrelationship between people, place and non-human nature, [Doctoral thesis] University of Gloucestershire.

Hanna, Kevin S., Dale, Ann., Ling, Chris., (2009). Social capital and quality of place: reflections on growth and change in a small town. Local Environment, 14:1, 31-44.

Hardin, Garrett. (1997). Ethical Implications of Carrying Capacity, 1977.

Hart, Robert A. (1996). Beyond the Forest Garden. Gaia Books.

Healey, Patsy. (2007). Urban Complexity and Spatial Strategies - Towards a relational planning for our times. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon.

Hidalgo, M. C., Hernandez, B. (2001). Place attachment: Conceptual and empirical questions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21(3), 273–281.

Holden, Erling. (2004). Ecological footprints and sustainable urban form. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 19. 91-109.

Holling, C. S. (2001). Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems 4:390-405.

House, F. (1999). Totem Salmon: Life lessons from another species. Beacon Press, Boston, MA, USA.

Howes, Aysin Dedekorkut. (2014). Bioregional Planning and Growth management, Australian Environmental Planning: Challenges and Future Prospects. Routledge, 234-245.

Jabareen, YR. (2006). Sustainable Urban Forms: Their Typologies, Models, and Concepts. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 26(1):38-52.

Jacobs, J. (1961). The Death and Life of Great American Cities; New York: Random House.

Johnson, K. N., F. Swanson., M. Herring., and S. Greene. (eds.). (1998). Bioregional assessments: Science at the crossroads of management and policy. IslandPress, Washington, DC.

Kabisch, Nadja., Korn, Horst., Stadler, Jutta., Bonn, Aletta. (eds). (2017). Nature‐based Solutions to Climate Change Adaptation in Urban Areas Linkages between Science, Policyand Practice. Springer.

Keating, M. (ed), (2004). Regions and Regionalism in Europe. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Khalil, Mohamed A. M. (2011). Small towns between Globalization and Sustainability. InFolio 27, ICAR / 21, Sector - Urban Planning ICAR / 20 Sector - Urban Planning and Technique.

Kingma, Dominique Alejandra Waissbluth. (2017). A local approach to holistic environmentalism: bioregionalism, cultural identity and environmental ethics. [Master’s thesis] University of Melbourne, Australia.

Kolodziejski, Ann Louise. (2014). Connecting People and Place: Sense of Place and Local Action. [Doctoral thesis] University of Manchester, Faculty of humanities.

Knox P.,Mayer H. (2009). Small Town Sustainability: Economic, Social, and Environmental Innovation. Birkhauser Verlag AG, Berlin.

Kretzmann, John P., McKnight John. (1993) Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community's Assets. Chicago : The Asset-Based Community Development Institute.

Kudryavtsev, A., Stedman, R. C., Krasny, M. E. (2012). Sense of place in environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 18(2), 229–250.

L. Thayer, Robert. (2003). Life-Place: Bioregional thought and Practice, University of California Press.

Lang, William L. (2002). Bioregionalism and the History of Place. Oregon Historical Quarterly, Vol. 103, 414-419.

Letsinger, Brandon. (2020). What is bioregional mapping?.

Lewis, P.H. (1996). Tomorrow by design: a regional design process for sustainability; John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Lukacs, H. A., Ardoin, N. M. (2014). The relationship of place re-making and watershed group participation in Appalachia. Society & Natural Resources, 27(1), 55–69.

Lynch, Tom. (2012). The bioregional imagination. The University of Georgia press, Athens.

Mainet, Hélène. (2015). The paradoxical place of small towns in sustainable development policies. What is beyond the images of “places where the living is easy”?, Annales Universitats Paedagogicae Cracoviensis, Studia Geographica VIII.

MacLeod, G., Jones, M. (2001). Renewing the Geography of Regions. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 19(6), 669–695.

Manzo, L. C., Perkins, D. D. (2006). Finding common ground: The importance of place attachment to community participation and planning. Journal of Planning Literature, 20(4), 335–350.

McGinnis, Michael Vincent., Woolley, John., Gamman, John. (1999). Bioregional Conflict Resolution: Rebuilding Community in Watershed Planning and Organizing, Environmental Management. Vol. 24, No. 1, 1–12; Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

McGinnis, Michael Vincent. (2000). The Bioregional Quest for Community, Landscape Jrnl. January 1, vol. 19 no. 1-2, 84-88.

McHarg, Ian L. Ecology and design. (1997). In McHarg, Ian L., Steiner, FR. (eds). (1998). To heal the earth: selected writings of Ian L. McHarg. Island Press, Washington, 341–356.

McHale, M.R., Pickett, S.T.A., Barbosa, O., Bunn, D.N., Cadenasso, M.L., Childers, D.L., Gartin, M., Hess, G.R., Iwaniec, D.M., McPhearson, T., Peterson, M.N., Poole, A.K., Rivers, L., Shutters, S.T., Zhou, W. (2015). The New Global Urban Realm: Complex, Connected, Diffuse, and Diverse Social-Ecological Systems. Sustainability, 7, 5211-5240.

McTaggart, W.D. (1993). Bioregionalism and regional geography: place, people, and networks. Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien, 37: 307-319.

Miller, Kenton R. (1996). Balancing the scales - Guidelines for Increasing Biodiversity's Chances Through Bioregional Management. World Resource Institute.

Murphy, A.B. (1991). Regions as social constructs: the gap between theory and practice. Progress in Human Geography 15, 23–35.

Murphy, Joseph. (2000). Ecological modernisation. Geoforum ,Vol - 31.

Nelson, Lisa S., Weschler, Louis F. (2001). The Watershed as a Focus for Public Administration: Conventional and Bioregional Approaches. Administrative Theory & Praxis, Vol. 23, Taylor & Francis, Ltd.

Newkirk, A. (1975). Bioregions: Towards Bioregional Strategy for Human Cultures. Environmental Conservation, 2(2), 108-108.

Newman, Peter., Jennings, Isabella. (2008). Cities as Sustainable Ecosystems-Principles and Practices. Island Press, Washington DC.

Paasi, A., (1991). Deconstructing regions. Notes on the scales of spatial life. Environment and Planning A, 23 (2): 239–254.

Paasi, Anssi. (2009). Regions and regional dynamics. In Rumford, Chris. (ed.). Handbook of European Studies. Sage, London. 464-484.

Parsons, James J. (1985). Bioregionalism and watershed consciousness. The Professional Geographer, 37:1, 1-6.

Parvin, Gulsan., Joerin, Jonas., Parashar, Sunil., Shaw, Rajib. (2011). Climate and Disaster Resilience Mapping at Micro level of Cities. Community, Environment and Disaster Risk Management, 6, 103-127.

Passaro, Antonio., Francese, Dora. (2015). Urban regeneration and bioregionalism. TECHNE - Journal of Technology for Architecture and Environment, (10), 249-257.

Pezzoli, Keith., Leiter, Robert A. (2016). Creating Healthy and Just Bioregions. Rev Environ Health. doi:10.1515/reveh-2015-0050

Ponomareva, Irina Y., Dzhandzhugazova, Elena A., Tankieva, Tamara A., Vaitkiene, Julia А. Kabelkaite., Buryanova, Anastasia A. (2020). The sustainable development of small towns: characteristics of the main factors of influence (with the example of the Tula Region). EurAsian Journal of BioSciences.

Powe, Neil., Hart, Trevor. (2017). Planning for small town change. Routledge,New York.

Powe, N.A., Hart, T., Bek, D. (2009). Market Town Centres in England: Meeting the Challenge of Maintaining their Contemporary Relevance. Planning Practice & Research.

Powe, N.A., Hart, T. (2009). Competing for the custom of small town residents: exploring the challenges and potential. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, Vol. 37 No. 9,732-747.

Powe, Neil A. (2020). Redesigning Town Centre Planning: From Master Planning Revival to Enabling Self-Reorientation. Planning Theory & Practice. 21:2, 236-253.

Prost, Didier. (2017) Down to Earth - Environment, Article.

Pugh, C. (ed.). (1996). Sustainability. The Environment and Urbanization, 229-243, London: Earthscan.

Raman, Bhuvaneswari., Aleyamma, MythriPrasad., Bercegol, Rémide., Denis, Eric., Zerah, Marie Hélène. (2015). Selected Readings on Small Town Dynamics in India.

Rees, W.E. (2000). Eco-footprint analysis: Merits and brickbats. Ecol. Econ. 32, 371–374.

Ribot J. (2002). Democratic Decentralization of Natural Resources: Institutionalizing Popular Participation. World Resources Institute: Washington, DC.

Ricci, M. (2007). An Integrated Approach to the Valorization and Management of Small Historical Centres in Italy: Good Policies and Good Practices. The 12th International Conference of National Trusts, New Delhi.

Ritzer, G. (2007). The Globalization of Nothing. 2, Pine forge Press, Thousand Oaks CA.

Robertson, D. (1996). Bioregionalism in nature writing. In American Nature’s writing, Volume II, New York, Charles Scribner’s sons.

Robertson, K.A. (2001). Parking and pedestrians: Balancing two key elements in downtown development. Transportation Quarterly, 55(2), 29-42.

Rosenthal, Stuart., Strange, William. (2001). The Determinants of Agglomeration. Journal of Urban Economics, 50, pp 191-229.

Ruano, Miguel. (1998). Eco-Urbanism: Sustainable Human Settlements. 60 Case Studies, Watson-Guptill Pubns.

Ryan, John Charles. (2012). Humanity’s Bioregional Places: Linking Space, Aesthetics, and the Ethics of Reinhabitation. Humanities.

Sale, Kirkpatrick. (1985). Dwellers in the Land: The Bioregional Vision. San Francisco, Sierra Club Books.

Satterthwaite, David. (1997). Sustainable Cities or Cities that Contribute to Sustainable Development?, Urban Studies, Vol. 34, No. 10, 1667-1691.

Satterthwaite, D., Dodman, D., Bicknell, J., (2009). Conclusions: Local development and adaptation. In: D. Satterthwaite, D. Dodman & J. Bicknell (Eds). Adapting cities to climate change – Understanding and addressing the development challenges. London: Earthscan, 359–383.

Scannell, L., Gifford, R. (2010). The relations between natural and civic place attachment and pro-environmental behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(3), 289–297.

Schurch, Thomas. (2018). An ecology of urban form: the imperative of the bioregion. CELA, Blacksburg, Virginia.

Schulz, C. Norberg. (1980). Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture, Rizzoli.

Silbernagel, Janet. (2005). Bio-regional patterns and spatial narratives for integrative landscape research and design. Landscape Research to Landscape Planning: aspects of integration, education.

Simon, David. (2016). Rethinking sustainable cities, Accessible, green and fair. Policy Press, UK.

Simon, David. (2015). Uncertain times, contested resources: Discursive practices and lived realities in African urban environments. City, 19:2-3, 216-238.

Simonis, Udo E. (1997). Bioregionalism: A pragmatic European perspective. Ekistics, Athens Center of Ekistics. , Vol. 64, Regions, 67-72.

Shackleton, C.M., Cilliers, S.S., Davoren, E., du Toit, M.J. (eds). (2021). Urban Ecology in the Global South, Springer.

Shaw, Annapurna. (2013). Small Cities and Towns in Global Era: Emerging Changes and Perspectives. Sharma, R.N., and Sandhu R.S. (Eds.). Rawat Publications, Chapter 2.

Slocombe, D. (1993). Environmental planning, Ecosystem sci-ence, and ecosystem approaches for integrating environment and development. Environmental Management 17:289–304.

Snyder, Gary. (1993). Coming into the Watershed: Biological and Cultural Diversity in the California Habitat, Chicago Review, Vol. 39.

Snyder, G. (1990). The Practice of the Wild. North Point Press, New York, NY, USA.

Snyder, Gary. (1995). A Place In Space: Ethics, Aesthetics, and Watersheds. Counterpoint Publishers, Washington DC.

Sofeska, Emilija. (2016) Relevant Factors in Sustainable Urban Development of Urban Planning Methodology and Implementation of Concepts for Sustainable Planning. (Planning Documentation for the Master Plan Skopje 2001–2020), Procedia Environmental Sciences, Volume 34, 2016, 140-151.

Stedman, R. C. (2003). Is it really just a social construction? The contribution of the physical environment to a sense of place. Society & Natural Resources, 16(8), 671–685.

Tacoli, C., Agergaard, J. (2017). Urbanisation, Rural Transformation and Food Systems: The Role of Small Towns. Working Paper: Rural-Urban Transformation and Food Systems; IIED: London, UK.

Taylor, Bron. (2000). Bioregionalism: An Ethics of Loyalty to Place. Landscape Journal, Vol. 19, University of Wisconsin Press.

Thayer, Robert. (2003). LifePlace: Bioregional Thought and Practice. University of California Press.

Thapa, R. B., Murayama, Y. (2011). Urban growth modeling of Kathmandu metropolitan region, Nepal. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, vol. 35, no. 1, 25–34.

The Global Urban Economic Dialogue Series. (2011). The Economic Role of Cities. United Nations Human Settlements Programme, UN-Habitat, Nairobi.

Tolbert, Charles M., Irwin, Michael D., Lyson Thomas A., Nucci, Alfred R. (2002). Civic Community in Small-Town America. Rural Sociology, 67, 90-113.

Tripathi, S. (2021). Towards sustainable urban system through the development of small towns in India, Reg Sci Policy Pract.; 13: 777– 797.

Wahl, Daniel Christian. (2017). Design and Planning for People in Place: Sir Patrick Geddes (1854–1932) and the Emergence of Ecological Planning, Ecological Design, and Bioregionalism.

Wahl, Daniel Christian. (2002). Exploring Participation - Holistic Science, Sustainability and the Emergence of a Healthy Whole through Appropriate Participation. [Master’s Dissertation report] Plymouth University, Department of Environmental Science & Schumacher College, International Centre for Ecological Studies.

Wang, Xueqin., Liu, Shenghe., Sykes, Olivier., Wang, Chengxin. (2019). Characteristic Development Model: A Transformation for the Sustainable Development of Small Towns in China. Sustainability.

Wheeler, Stephen M., Beatley, Timothy. (2010). The sustainable urban development reader. Routledge , New York.

Whitehead, M. (2003). (Re)Analysing the Sustainable City: Nature, Urbanisation and the Regulation of Socio-environmental Relations in the UK. Urban Studies, 40(7), 1183–1206.

Williams, Daniel. (2007). Sustainable Design: Ecology, architecture and Planning. John Wiley and sons.

Williams, Katie. (2010). Sustainable cities: research and practice challenge. International Journal of Urban Sustainable Development, 1:1-2, 128-132.

Wirth, L. (1938). Urbanism as a Way of Life. American Journal of Sociology, 44(1), 1-24.

W. Stephen. (2004). Think Global, Act Local — The Life and Legacy of Patrick Geddes. Luath Press.

Wondolleck, J. M., Yaffee, S. L. (2000). Making Collaboration Work: Lessons From Innovation In Natural Resource Managment. United Kingdom: Island Press.

Department of economic and social affairs, UN. (2018). World Urbanisation prospects.

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2020). World Disasters report.

United Nations Conference on Trade and development, UNCTADstat data,

United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat). (2019). Annual progress Report.

Valtenbergs Visvaldisa., González Ainhoa., Piziks Ralfsc., (2013). Selecting indicators for sustainable development of small towns: The case of Valmiera municipality, ICTE in Regional Development, Valmiera, Latvia.

Vanderheiden, Steve. (2008). Two Conceptions of Sustainability, Political studies, vol 56.

Van Bueren, EM. (2011). The Green Series: Toward a Sustainable Built Environment, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Vaske, J. J., Kobrin, K. C. (2001). Place attachment and environmentally responsible behavior. The Journal of Environmental Education, 32(4), 16–21.

Vidal de la Blache, Paul. (1926). Principles of human geography. New York, Henry Holt and company.

Vujadinovic, Snezana., Šabić, Dejan. (2017). The importance of regions in geographical research. Centre for Evaluation in Education and Science.

Vukovic, Darko., Kochetkov, Dmitry M., (2017). Defining region. R-Economy Vol. 3, Issue 2.

Yaffee, S., A. F. Phillips., I. C. Frentz., P. W. Hard., S. M. Maleki., B. E. Thorpe. (1996). Ecosystem Management in theUnited States: An Assessment of Current Experience. IslandPress, Washington, D.C.

Young, Robert F. (2017). Free cities and regions—Patrick Geddes’s theory of planning. Landscape and Urban Planning.

Young, Terence. (2000). Belonging Not Containing: The Vision of Bioregionalism. Landscape Journal , University of Wisconsin Press,Vol. 19, No. 1/2, 46-49.

Zhang, Z., Su, S.., Xiao, R.., Jiang, D., Wu, J. (2013). Identifying determinants of urban growth from a multi-scale perspective: A case study of the urban agglomeration around Hangzhou Bay, China. Applied Geography, vol. 45, 193–202.

Zhang, Mo., Liu, Yiming., Wu, Jing., Wang, Tiantian., (2018). Index system of urban resource and environment carrying capacity based on ecological civilization. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 68, 90-97.




How to Cite

Surekha, C. K. (2022). Sustainable Urban Development: Bioregionalistic Vision for Small Towns. International Journal of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development, 7(1), 28–46.