The global ecological crisis is an indispensable issue that needs to be solved. The importance of developing critical thinking and communication skills in teaching-learning methods will help to enhance educational performance; as well, the students would become informed participants in environmental decision-making. Lebanon is suffering from multiple ecological problems due to the environmental mismanagement, particularly energy problems. For this reason, training the Lebanese students mainly in architecture schools should to think critically about environmental issues, and using collaborative problem-solving as one of teaching-learning methods and techniques, which will be directly reflected in finding solutions to the problem under investigation. The researcher aims to experiment and apply this method in a history of architecture class at the faculty of architecture, to improve the environmental quality of health and wellbeing in historical built environment. This will increase the awareness for conservation aspects of architectural heritage in students, on the one hand. In addition to spread the spirit of teamwork, to facilitate the concept of integrated design process between the different disciplines when practicing professional life, on the other hand. Therefore, the study aims to produce a new methodology for integrating teaching-learning method in architecture, presenting various international attempts of thermal retrofit in historical built environment, guiding the architectural students to follow the same approach of such projects, which will save energy in a country that has a major problem in electricity. The case study is based on a real problem in a realistic situation in Tripoli old Souks at north Lebanon, in which the instructor and the students will analyze and propose some solutions of building thermal retrofit within this historical context, using a collaborative problem-solving strategy that could clarify its reversal extent on the validity of health and wellbeing with the continuity of conserving the architectural heritage.
Aelenei, L., Aelenei, D., Gonçalves, H., Lollini, R., Musall, E., Scognamiglio, A., Cubi, E. & Noguchi, M. (2012). Design Issues for Net Zero-Energy Buildings. Open House International Association.
Aelenei, L., Lollini, R., Gonçalves, H., Aelenei, D., Noguchi, M., Donn, M. & Garde, F. (2011). Passive Cooling Approaches in Net-Zero Energy Solar Buildings: Lessons Learned from Demonstration Buildings. CISBAT2011.
Al-Harithy, H. (2005). [Reframing] "World Heritage". International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments (IASTE), Traditional Dwellings and Settlements Review, 17(1), 7–17. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/41758301
Besen, P. & Boarin, P. (2018). The Future of Historic Buildings: Retrofitting to Improve the Thermal Performance of New Zealand Architectural Heritage. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 217(1), 15-27. WIT Press, ISSN 1743-3541, DOI: 10.2495/SDP180021
Bhardwaj, D. (2017). 200-Year-Old Mumbai Mosque's Green Choice Cuts Electricity Bill by 67%. Tthebetterindia, Vikara Services Pvt Ltd. Retrieved from https://www.thebetterindia.com/123363/mumbai-jama-masjid-save-energy-electricity-going-green/
Braxton, J. M., Milem, J. F. & Sullivan, A. S. (2000). The Influence of Active Learning on the College Student Departure Process: Toward a Revision of Tinto's Theory. The Journal of Higher Education, 71 (5), 569-590.
Collier, P. (2008). The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries are Failing and What can be done About It, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Daigle, R. J., Doran, M. V. & Pardue, J. H. (1996). Integrating Collaborative Problem Solving throughout the Curriculum. ACM SIGCSE Bulletin. 28(1). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/236462.236547. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/admin/Downloads/236462.236547.pdf
Donnelly, R. & Fitzmaurice, M. (2005). Collaborative Project-based Learning and Problem based Learning in Higher Education: a Consideration of Tutor and Student Role in Learner-Focused Strategies. Learning and Teaching Centre, Dublin Institute of Technology [email protected]
Du, L., Leivo, V., Prasauskas, T., Turunen, M., Kiviste, M., Martuzevicius, D. & Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U. (2015). Energy Retrofits in Multi-Family Buildings in North-East Europe: the Impacts on Thermal Conditions. 6th International Building Physics Conference, IBPC 2015. Energy Procedia 78 ( 2015 ) 860-864, Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.11.008
El-Darwish, I & Gomaa, M. (2017). Retrofitting strategy for building envelopes toachieve energy efficiency. Alexandria Engineering Journal (2017) 56, 579-589. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2017.05.011
Fiedler, M. (2009). Policy & Practice A Development Education Review [PDF]. Centre for Global Education.
Ginzarly, M., & Teller, J. (2016). Heritage Conservation in River Corridor Cities: The Case of Tripoli, Lebanon. International Conference: Urban Morphology and the Resilient City. The 23rd International Seminar on Urban Form (ISUF 2016), At Nanjing, China. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309297231
Grover, S. (2012). 900-Year Old Church Goes 100% Renewable. Treehugger, Narrative Content Group. Retrieved from https://www.treehugger.com/renewable-energy/900-year-old-church-goes-100-renewable.html
Hensel, M. (2010). Performance-oriented Architecture: Towards a Biological Paradigm for Architectural Design and the Built Environment. FormAkademisk - Forskningstidsskrift for Design Og Designdidaktikk, 3(1). Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.7577/formakademisk.138
Khoury, M. P. & Khoury, T. E. (2011). Sustainability and Design Education [PDF]. Retrieved from https://laur.lau.edu.lb:8443/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10725/5720/Sustainability.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Les Bodwell. (2012). Signed, Sealed & Delivered! A Building Envelope Just Right for New Hampshire & Maine! Seacoast Metal Roofing Contractor. Retrieved 11 5, 2016, from http://www.portsmoutharearoofing.com, 2012.
Li, Y., Ren, J., Jing, Z., Jianping, L., Ye, Q. & Lv, Z. (2017). The Existing Building Sustainable Retrofit in China-A Review and Case Study. 10th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, ISHVAC2017, 19-22 October 2017, Jinan, China. Procedia Engineering 205 (2017) 3638-3645, Elsevier Ltd.
Littlewood, J. R., Karani, G., Atkinson, J., Bolton, D., Geens, A. J. & Jahic, D. (2017). Introduction to a Wales Project for Evaluating Residential Retrofit Measures and Impacts on Energy Performance, Occupant Fuel Poverty, Health and Thermal Comfort. 9th International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, SEB-17, 5-7 July 2017, Chania, Crete, Greece. Energy Procedia 134 (2017) 835–844, Elsevier Ltd.
Maybin, J. (2006). Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling. Literacy, 40(1), 58-59. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9345.2006.02802_1.x
Peacock, A. (2009). Teaching eco-literacy during a period of uncertainty [PDF]. Centre for Global Education.
Sartori, I., Napolitano, A. & Voss, K. (2012). Net zero energy buildings: A consistent definition framework. Journal Energy and Buildings.
Schwede66, Piko. (2011). Wholefood building after earthquake. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Piko_building_corner_Barbadoes_Kilmore.JPG.
Slimani, K., Ferreira Da Silva, C., Médini, L. & Ghodous, P. (2006). Conflicts Mitigation in Collaborative Design. International Journal of Production Research, Taylor & Francis Group, France. 44(9), 1681-1702. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207540500445198
Taleghani, M., Tenpierik, M., Kurvers, S. & Dobbelsteen, A. v. d. (2013). A Review into Thermal Comfort in Buildings. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, El Sevier. 26(1), 201-215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.05.050
Telegraph, REX. (2011). Christchurch Cathedral on the day of the earthquake. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/australiaandthepacific/newzealand/8363017/Christchurch-earthquake-no-bodies-found-in-cathedral.html.
Torcellini, P., Pless, S. & Deru, M. (2006). Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).
Wiersma, Elina A. & Henry, K. (2005). Integrated Design Process - Benefits of an Architectural & Engineering Design Studio. Integrated Design Studio, Retrieved from https://www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/CIB8320.pdf
Wimmers, G. (2012). Passive House: Lessons Learned in Germany. PowerPointPresentation, the Net-Zero House Conference, March 13, 2012, Vancouver, Canada.
Yurtoğlu, N. (2018). History Studies. International Journal of History, 10(7), 241-264. doi:10.9737/hist.2018.658. Retrieved from http://www.historystudies.net/dergi//birinci-dunya-savasinda-bir-asayis-sorunu-sebinkarahisar-ermeni-isyani20181092a4a8f.pdf.
Zeunert, Joshua. (2017). Landscape Architecture and Environmental Sustainability: Creating Positive Change through Design. Bloomsbury, ISBN: PB: 978-1-4725-9062-6, doi:10.5040/9781474222211.ch-004
Zimmerman, Alex. (2011). The Integrated Design Process Guide. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation, CMHC SCHL Home to Canadians, YEARS ANS, Canada. 1(1), 1-18. Retrieved from https://moodle.polymtl.ca/file.php/1047/IDP-Charettes/article_design_guide_en_aug23.pdf