This study assessed the value chain analysis of large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb) in Taplejung district, Nepal and explored the functional linkage and upgrading strategies among the key value chain actors. One hundred and sixty farmers were surveyed purposely along with 5 local and district level traders, 5 regional level traders and exporters and 5 enablers who were sampled using rapid market appraisal in March 2018. The study presents a comparative analysis among large holders (n=72) and smallholders (n=88) large cardamom farmers using SPSS and MS-Excel. The majority of farmers used suckers as propagating materials which was a major source of disease conduction. 62.5% of farmers adopted traditional dryers for curing, which reduced the quality of large cardamom whereas about 30% of them used improved dryers for curing that enhanced quality. The majority of farmers had not adopted value addition practices like tail cutting, grading and packaging which were carried out at trader level. Large cardamom prices were normally determined by the export market of India. The average land area of large cardamom per household was 21.56 ropani with 36.74 ropani for the large landholder farmers and 9.14 ropani for the smallholders. The key problems faced by farmers and traders were high price swing, lack of disease-free propagating materials, reliance on the Indian market, aged orchards, shrinking productivity, and minimal collaboration among the chain actors. Therefore, adoption of Good Management Practices (GMPs)- upgraded bhattis, transfer of tail cutting technology and storage management, along with value addition activities like grading (color and size), tail cutting and packaging need to be adopted with strong adherence to export quality. This study revealed that necessary action needs to be taken to maintain a high level of collaboration among the value chain actors thereby increasing the value chain efficiency of Nepalese large cardamom.
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