Management of Marine Plastic Waste Generated from Land-based Sources in Viet Nam: Problems, Constraints, and Solutions

Gam Pham Thi, Thang Nguyen Trung, Sunil Herat, Tung Nguyen Thanh
Viet Nam is ranked No 5 in global plastic waste contribution to the marine environment. The long coastline in Viet Nam provides a livelihood for millions of households as well as food security for the whole country. The use of plastics per capita increased nearly elevenfold, from 3.8 kg/person in 1990 to 41 kg/person in 2015. The two highly populated cities (Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City) alone generate 80 tonnes of plastic waste every day. Landfilling is the primary treatment method of solid waste while recycling is still limited. Tax for plastic bags exists, but implementation is not efficient. Application of Extended Producer Responsibility still faces many constraints. Regular monitoring and data collection related to the status of marine plastic waste pollution are inadequate. Moving forward Viet Nam needs to focus on a number of issues including strengthening the legislation, raising awareness, promoting research on innovative recycling technologies, and promoting international cooperation. This paper investigates current issues, challenges, and constraints in managing plastic waste in Viet Nam and makes recommendations for improvement. The paper utilises an unsystematic narrative overview as the research method.


Viet Nam, plastic waste, recycling, policies and legislation, health impact


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