Drinking Water Quality from Water Vending Machines in Selected Public Schools in Cebu City, Philippines

Marchee Tabotabo Picardal, Emily May Gacusan Rapirap, Leonora Imperial Micame, Mary Jane Bacalan Tura, Ofelia Navarro Barrientos, Rey Artienda Kimilat, Arnulfo Cabardo Sarnillo, Adelaida Limbaga Porol
Drinking water from Water Vending Machines (WVM) may pose health risks to consumers especially to students who are primary end-users in the public school setting. A one-shot survey of WVM water samples from 8 public schools in Cebu City Philippines was analyzed for microbial test and 3 schools were further investigated for physicochemical analysis. Results revealed that 8 water samples registered a total coliform count of 2.6 CFU/mL while specific E.coli testing posted (<1.1 to 2.6 CFU/mL). These data are higher than the national standard for permissible value for clean water (<1.1/100 ml) and international standard of 0.00 CFU/100 ml except in 2 schools that fall within the normal level (<1.1 CFU/mL). The water samples passed the physicochemical evaluation but failed in the microbiological test due to the presence of high levels of E.coli. Hence, water dispensed from the WVM is not safe for students’ consumption. Schools and other institutions that utilized WVM must require private companies as well as the management of the institutions to routinely check, clean, and maintain the machine to avoid accumulation of coliforms and E.coli contamination.
© 2018 The Authors. Published by IEREK Press. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Peer-review under responsibility of ESSD's International Scientific Committee of Reviewers.


water vending machine, public schools health, coliform, water assessment, Philippines


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Copyright (c) 2018 Marchee Tabotabo Picardal, Emily May Gacusan Rapirap, Leonora Imperial Micame, Mary Jane Bacalan Tura, Ofelia Navarro Barrientos, Rey Artienda Kimilat, Arnulfo Cabardo Sarnillo, Adelaida Limbaga Porol Creative Commons License
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