Drinking Water Quality from Water Vending Machines in Selected Public Schools in Cebu City, Philippines

Marchee Tabotabo Picardal (1) , Emily May Gacusan Rapirap (2) , Leonora Imperial Micame (3) , Mary Jane Bacalan Tura (4) , Ofelia Navarro Barrientos (5) , Rey Artienda Kimilat (6) , Arnulfo Cabardo Sarnillo (7) , Adelaida Limbaga Porol (8)
(1) Don Vicente Rama Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7257-6776 ; tabotabomarchee@gmail.com , Philippines
(2) Don Vicente Rama Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines , Philippines
(3) Pardo National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines , Philippines
(4) Ramon Duterte Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines
(5) Don Vicente Rama Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines
(6) Abellana National School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines
(7) Madridejos National High School’s Department of Education, Cebu Province Division, Region 7, Philippines , Philippines
(8) SAGE Prep Schoolhouse, Cebu City Philippines , Philippines

Abstract

Drinking water from Water Vending Machines (WVM) may pose health risks to consumers especially to students who are primary end-users in the public school setting. A one-shot survey of WVM water samples from 8 public schools in Cebu City Philippines was analyzed for microbial test and 3 schools were further investigated for physicochemical analysis. Results revealed that 8 water samples registered a total coliform count of 2.6 CFU/mL while specific E.coli testing posted (<1.1 to 2.6 CFU/mL). These data are higher than the national standard for permissible value for clean water (<1.1/100 ml) and international standard of 0.00 CFU/100 ml except in 2 schools that fall within the normal level (<1.1 CFU/mL). The water samples passed the physicochemical evaluation but failed in the microbiological test due to the presence of high levels of E.coli. Hence, water dispensed from the WVM is not safe for students’ consumption. Schools and other institutions that utilized WVM must require private companies as well as the management of the institutions to routinely check, clean, and maintain the machine to avoid accumulation of coliforms and E.coli contamination.
© 2018 The Authors. Published by IEREK Press. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Peer-review under responsibility of ESSD's International Scientific Committee of Reviewers.

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Authors

Marchee Tabotabo Picardal
tabotabomarchee@gmail.com (Primary Contact)
Emily May Gacusan Rapirap
Leonora Imperial Micame
Mary Jane Bacalan Tura
Ofelia Navarro Barrientos
Rey Artienda Kimilat
Arnulfo Cabardo Sarnillo
Adelaida Limbaga Porol
Author Biographies

Marchee Tabotabo Picardal, Don Vicente Rama Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7257-6776 ; tabotabomarchee@gmail.com

Don Vicente Rama Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7257-6776 ; tabotabomarchee@gmail.com

Emily May Gacusan Rapirap, Don Vicente Rama Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Don Vicente Rama Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Leonora Imperial Micame, Pardo National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Pardo National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Mary Jane Bacalan Tura, Ramon Duterte Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Ramon Duterte Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Ofelia Navarro Barrientos, Don Vicente Rama Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Don Vicente Rama Memorial National High School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Rey Artienda Kimilat, Abellana National School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Abellana National School Department of Education, Cebu City Division, Region 7, Philippines

Arnulfo Cabardo Sarnillo, Madridejos National High School’s Department of Education, Cebu Province Division, Region 7, Philippines

Madridejos National High School’s Department of Education, Cebu Province Division, Region 7, Philippines

Adelaida Limbaga Porol, SAGE Prep Schoolhouse, Cebu City Philippines

SAGE Prep Schoolhouse, Cebu City Philippines
Picardal, M. T., Rapirap, E. M. G., Micame, L. I., Tura, M. J. B., Barrientos, O. N., Kimilat, R. A., Sarnillo, A. C., & Porol, A. L. (2018). Drinking Water Quality from Water Vending Machines in Selected Public Schools in Cebu City, Philippines. International Journal of Environmental Science & Sustainable Development, 3(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.21625/essd.v3iss1.253

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