A Critical Analysis of Institutional and Regulatory Framework for Building Stock Energy Efficiency and Transition in Pakistan

Nida Batool Sheikh (1), Jelle Laverge (2), Marc Delghust (3)
(1) PhD Scholar, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture Universiteit Gent, Belgium, Belgium,
(2) Associate Professor, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, Universiteit Gent, Belgium, Belgium,
(3) Post Doctoral Research Fellow, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture Universiteit Gent, Belgium, Belgium


Climate change has emerged as a global focal point, notably affecting vulnerable countries like Pakistan. The country faces heightened risk, prompting concern among many due to its susceptibility to climate-related hazards. An imperative challenge arising from this phenomenon is the necessary shift towards sustainable energy, particularly concerning energy consumption within the building sector. Buildings significantly contribute to daily energy usage and subsequent GHG emissions. In Pakistan, transitioning to energy-efficient building stock holds pivotal importance in mitigating climate change impacts. This hinges on establishing a robust institutional framework and regulatory structure centered around energy efficiency. While Pakistan possesses policies and national guidelines advocating for energy-efficient buildings, their practical enforcement and application remain inadequate. The inception of the Building Energy Code of Pakistan in 1990, based on ASHRAE 90.1 standards, marked a step forward. However, obstacles rooted in institutional weakness and limited capacity building have impeded its effective adoption and adherence. Although the Energy Provisions of 2011 introduced modifications, their scope remained confined mainly to commercial structures. This paper conducts an extensive assessment of Pakistan's existing institutional and regulatory framework for building energy efficiency and transition. Drawing on literature insights and stakeholder perspectives, an in-depth understanding of prevailing policies and institutions uncovers underlying reasons for non-compliance and limited implementation. Additionally, input was gathered from stakeholders through interviews, aiming to identify barriers obstructing the reinforcement of building energy efficiency measures in Pakistan. Discourse and narrative analysis, informed by literature and stakeholder interviews, revealed the significance of awareness, participation, coordination, capacity building, technical expertise, finance, and resources as key factors contributing to deficient compliance and implementation of existing codes and policy guidelines. This paper also proposes actionable recommendations to expedite the transition towards a sustainable, energy-efficient building stock in Pakistan.

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Nida Batool Sheikh
[email protected] (Primary Contact)
Jelle Laverge
Marc Delghust
Sheikh, N., Laverge, J., & Delghust, M. (2024). A Critical Analysis of Institutional and Regulatory Framework for Building Stock Energy Efficiency and Transition in Pakistan. Environmental Science & Sustainable Development, 9(1), 32–41. https://doi.org/10.21625/essd.v9i1.1066

Article Details

Received 2024-02-05
Accepted 2024-03-20
Published 2024-03-31