Impact of Environment on Architecture of Mesopotamia with Respect to the Use of Materials, Tools and Mode of Construction

Saira Iqbal

Through architectural and engineering skills, humanity leaves its mark upon the earth. Urbanization started from Mesopotamia in west Asia where the Mesopotamian societies flourished. They evolved into various landscapes from the metal-rich highlands and elevations of southeastern Turkey to the Syrian deserts, from the woodmen of the Levant to the bogs of southern Iraq. Mesopotamian civilization, along with its architecture, survived more than three thousand years. The architecture of the Mesopotamian civilization is not only portentous in its outlook and proficient in planning, but it’s also considered rational and technical with respect to its environment.

The civilization was very first of its kind, having technology and urban settlements that laid the foundation of future modern settlements. It considered the region's environment and climate as pivotal in the development of its culture and architecture.

This study discusses how the people, consciously or unconsciously, shaped the land or landscape around them in relation to their environment. This study is both basic and applied, according to architectural research methods. By content, the research in this article is according to the process of design and construction and the data in this research will be analyzed morphologically and technically. The Mesopotamian people used mud bricks, aqueducts, wooden beams, Archimedes screw, courtyard and tripartite houses. The study in this article proves that all these constructions and the techniques used were according to their environmental and climatic conditions.

Keywords

Architecture; Environment; Mesopotamia

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