Scenic and Scientific Representation of Water in Mughal Architecture: A case study of ShahJahan’s Quadrangle Lahore Fort, Pakistan


  • Saira Iqbal Quaid e Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan



Nothing is useless in this world. Everything has its specific purpose and objectives with respect to its importance. The present-day hardware and materials utilized as a part of building swallow noteworthy measure of our national vitality. Ancient monumental buildings and palaces are still a place to relax without fans, coolers and air conditioners. There is a need to study the traditional buildings because they are time-tested. Mughal Architects are legendary for their creativity. Without beauty, architecture would just be the combination and amalgamation of some material. Hence, art is the soul and spirit of architecture. Mughal Architecture is the example of “Feeling of Wonder” that is the source of aesthetic experience. Mughals showed the great skills in infusing the Islamic idea with local tradition. Water has had been an important element in Asian culture and architecture. Water is an architectural element that is extensively used in our ancient buildings and in the garden of the Mughals. Water not only pleases the eye on a hot summer day, but also provides passive cooling. This paper deals with the utilization of water not only for the purpose of beautification of the site but also for studying the scientific utility of water. This study is a mixture of basic and applied methods according to architectural research methods. The study in this research will show how Mughals used water as an eminent representation of undaunted Mughal mastery in retaining and regulating the temperature along with the beautification purpose via fountains, water channels, and pools.


Abdul Rehman , Munazzaha Akhtar. (2012). Heart Pleasing and Praise worthy buildings :Reviewing Mughl Architecture in the light of Primary Resources . Pakistan Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 10.

Ali, A. (2013). Passive Cooling and Vernacularism in Mughal Buildings in North India :A Source of inspiration of sustainable development . International Transaction Journal of Engineering , Managment , Applied Sciences and Technologies.

Chaudhary, N. A. (1991). Lahore Fort - A Witness to History : Architectural Features . Lahore : Sang e Meel .

Cultural Sustainable Tourism (CST)

Ed Muhammad Naeem Mir , Mahmoud Hussain , James L. Wescoat Jr. (1996). Mughal Gardens in Lahore-History and documentation . Lahore : University of Engineering and Technology .

J. Fernendes , J. Correia da Silva . (2007). Passive Cooling in Evora's traditional architecture . Building Low Energy Cooling and Advanced Ventilation Technologies .

Khan, D. A. (n.d.). Lahore Fort : The Shah Jahan Quadrangle . Lahore : The Department of Archaeology and Museum .

Kombo, M. S. (1994). Shah Jahan Nama. Lahore.

M. Shokouhian , F. Soflaee , F. Nikkah. (2007). Environmental effect of courtyard in sustainable architecture of Iran.

Building Low Energy Cooling and Advanced Ventilation Technologies.

Mittal, N. (2010). Heritage Buildings an Inspiration for energy efficient modern buildings . Central Building Research Institute Roorkee .

Nadiem, I. H. (1996). Lahore - A Glorious Heritage : Shah Jahan's Quadrangle . Lahore: Sang e Meel .

Qureshi, S. (1998). The Citadel : Lahore - The City Within . Concept Media .

Robinson, F. (2006). The Mughal Emperor and the Islamic Dynasties of India, Iran and Central Asia. London: Thomas and Hudson.

Samadi, J. (2014). Utilizing the central courtyard of traditional architecture in modern architecture . Research Journal of Environment and Earth Sciences .

Schimmel, A. (2004). The Empire of the Great Mughals, History Art and Culture . Reaaktion Books.

Scruton, R. (1979). The Aesthetics of Architecture : The Problem of Architecture . Great Britian : W&J Mackay Limited




How to Cite

Iqbal, S. (2018). Scenic and Scientific Representation of Water in Mughal Architecture: A case study of ShahJahan’s Quadrangle Lahore Fort, Pakistan. The Academic Research Community Publication, 2(2), 11.