Self-financing for Conservation Based on Global Experiences – Case Study Preserving the Architectural Heritage of Historical Tripoli, Lebanon
Main Article Content
Funding has always been important for the continuity of any conservation project and the achievement of the desired results. Its impact is particularly evident in the projects regarding the heritage domains; it clearly shows the importance of having multiple participating bodies/entities and diverse self-funding sources without relying solely on governmental agencies or governmental funding, particularly in the developing countries where there is a clear deficiency in the countries' potential ability to meet the developmental needs of these heritage areas. The study aims to illustrate the relationship between continuity of financing operations and the sustainability of conservation projects. Financing and its efficiency equally affect all the phases of the project: the pre-implementation stage, the implementation stage, and the post-implementation/operation stage (maintenance and follow-up). This is due to the fact that financing operations do not only affect the possibility of implementing a project, but also affect the quality level of the preservation, whereby buildings lose their values both tangible and intangible. This is due to the inaccuracy of studies, lack of precise equipment for work or lack of analyzing the different possibilities that might lead to the destruction or damage of buildings. In this context, light will be shed on different cases and models of global conservation projects in several countries by investigating and analysing its financial aspects to establish the different circumstances surrounding each project, such as goals and stages, and identifying the positive and negative points of each project. This will be done through several axes, legal, managerial, financial, and popular participation, the most important of which is the self-financing aspect. Each case will be discussed and evaluated separately at the level of the building, urbanization and society as an integrated system to demonstrate their characteristics, namely successful architecture, historical gatherings, and surrounding community life. The paper proposes some methods for dealing with historic buildings as part of the urban and architectural heritage, where the legal, managerial, financial and community participation, especially the self-financing level, are considered in order to conserve these buildings.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution: other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
With the understanding that the above condition can be waived with permission from the Author and that where the Work or any of its elements is in the public domain under applicable law, that status is in no way affected by the license.
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a pre-publication manuscript (but not the Publisher's final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (see The Effect of Open Access). Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher's request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author's own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- The Work is the Author's original work;
- The Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- The Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- The Work has not previously been published;
- The Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- The Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author's breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 7 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher's use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Abdel Fattah, S. E. M. (2012). Funding Management of Historical Areas Rehabilitation Projects, Cairo Case Study. Msc thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Helwan University, Egypt. Retrieved from http://www.cpas-egypt.com/pdf/ShehabMohamed/Ms.c/002.pdf
Aga Khan Historic Cities Programme (AKHCP). (2007). the Azhar Park Project in Cairo and the Conservation and Revitalization of Darb Al-Ahmar. the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, Switzerland. Retrieved from https://ahmadladhani.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/historic_cities_ah3.pdf
Al-Manshawi, A. (2013). Partnership in Urban Conservation Projects under the Globalization of the (20th -21st) Century in Egypt. PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Egypt.
Bunge-Vivier, V. & Martínez-Ballesté, A. (2017). Factors that influence the success of conservation programs in common property resources in Mexico. Uopen Journals (ISSN 1875-0281), International Journal of the Commons, 11(1), 487-507. doi:https://doi.org/10.18352/ijc.718
Business Dictionary. (2019). WebFinance Inc. Retrieved from http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/self-financing.html
Clausse, G. (2013). Funding Sources for Preserving Cultural Heritage Monuments and Sites. The Specific Case of the "7 Most Endangered", Initiative by EIB-I and Europa Nostra. Retrieved from https://www.globalheritagefund.org/
El Borombaly, H. (2015). Building Regulation Control for the Conservation of Architecture and Urban Heritage to the Value Areas. Conference: Al Qassim Architecture 2nd Forum; Urban Heritage principles and values, Al Qassim University on April 2015. doi: https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.1.4907.9206.
El Esawy, M. A. A. (2012). A Comparative Study of Urban Heritage Conservation Policies. 3rd International Urban Conservation Conference and Exhibition, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Retrieved from https://www.fayoum.edu.eg/.../Architectural/DrMohammadE.aspx
El Taweel, H. A. M. (2006). Rehabilitation for Traditional Centers of Arab Cities: The Lebanese Experiment - Case Study. Arab Cities Magazine, Arab Towns Organization, 138(2), 137-154. Retrieved from http://www.lonaard.com/ar/arc-8.pdf
Etzioni, A. (2007). Reconstruction: An Agenda. Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding, Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), New York, USA, 1(1), 27-45. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/17502970601075881
Felix, M. (2007). Value Engineering as a Key Enrolment in Architecture and Urban Conservation Process. Msc thesis, Faculty of engineeing, Cairo University, Egypt.
Ginzarly, M., & Teller, J. (2016). Heritage Conservation in River Corridor Cities: The Case of Tripoli, Lebanon. Conference: The 23rd International Seminar on Urban Form (ISUF 2016), Nanjing, China. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309297231_Heritage_Conservation_in_River_Corridor_Cities_The_Case_of_Tripoli_Lebanon
Hanafi, M. A. (1993). Development and Conservation with Special Reference to the Turkish Town of Alexandria. PhD thesis, Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, University of York, U.K.
Harrison, L. E. (2006). Culture and Economic Development, How Much Does Culture Matter. Cato Unbound, Journal of Debate, Lead Essay. Retrieved from https://www.cato-unbound.org/2006/12/03/lawrence-e-harrison/culture-economic-development
Hezel, S. J. & Francis, X. (2009). The Role of Culture in Economic Development. Micsemesian Counselor, 8(77), 1-20. Retrieved from http://www.micsem.org/pubs/counselor/pdf/mc77.pdf
Khan, M.M., Zhang, J., Hashmi, M.S., Bashir, M. (2010). Cultural Values and Economic Growth in Asia: An Empirical Analysis. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 1(2), 15-27. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b3a7/be08e32922356f08a61473c5b30f314b9fce.pdf
Ministry of Culture. (2010). Guiding Manual: Principles and Criteria for Civilizational Coordination of Buildings and Heritage Areas of Distinctive Value. Approved by the Supreme Council for Planning and Urban Development, in accordance with Law No. 119 of 2008 and its Executive Regulations. National Organization for Urban Harmony, Egypt, 1(1), 1-48. Retrieved from http://www.cpas-egypt.com/pdf/National_Organization_for_Urban_Harmony/01/001/01.pdf
Nahas, C. (2001). Stakeholder Analysis and Social Assessment for the Proposed Cultural Heritage and Tourism Development Project. Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR), Beirut, Lebanon. Retrieved from https://charbelnahas.org/?p=696
Pålsson Skarin, I. (2011). A Finance Model for the Built Cultural Heritage - Proposals for improvements of future Heritage Economics. Lund University, Sweden. ISBN 978-91-7740-103-2. Retrieved from http://portal.research.lu.se/portal/files/6416876/2203938.pdf
Pickard, R. (2009). Funding the Architectural Heritage: a Guide to Policies and Examples. Council of Europe Publishing, France. ISBN 978-92-871-6498-8. Retrieved from https://courseworks2.columbia.edu/files/588373/download?download_frd=1
Pollard, S. R. & Cousins, T. (2008). Governing wetlands in the commons: the challenges to management of complex systems. The IASC Biennial Conference; Governing shared Resources: connecting local experience to global challenges, Cheltenham, England, 1(1), 2-24. Retrieved from http://award.wordpress.hupu-labs.biz/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2015/11/Governing-wetlands-in-the-commons_Cousins_Pollard_2008.pdf
Rashed, A. & Fikri, M. M. & Belqasi, M. (2013). Investment as a Cornerstone for Conservation Operations in Heritage Areas: Case Study of Al-Moez Ledin Allah Al Fatimi Street. 3rd National Urban Heritage Forum, Al-Madinah Al-Monawara, Saudi Arabia.
Sultan, M. S. (2013). Urban Heritage Finance Issues: Strategic Framework for the Promotion of Conservation and Protection of Heritage. 3rd National Urban Heritage Forum, Al-Madinah Al-Monawara, Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from https://scholar.cu.edu.eg/?q=mmyoussif/files/qdy_tmwyl_ltrth_lmrny.docx.
Tabellini, G. (2010). Culture and Institutions: Economic Development in the Regions of Europe. Journal of the European Economic Association, 8(4), 677-716. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1542-4774.2010.tb00537.x
UNESCO World Heritage Center (WHC), World Heritage Sites Management in Egypt. (2012). Urban Regeneration Project for Historic Cairo (URHC). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Business Report for the Period July 2010 to June 2012. Retrieved from http://whc.unesco.org/document/120190
Yousif, M. M. A.. (2014). Investment Programs in Architectural Heritage and Means of Funding based on the Arab and International Experiences. Journal of Urban Research, Faculty of Urban and Regional Planning, Cairo University, Egypt, 12(ISSN 2090-0694), 13-27. Retrieved from https://www.tinyurl.com/za96knv