The effect of the reciprocal relations of the deterioration symptoms in different building materials in some of historic Cairo's buildings

Essam H. Mohamed
In the present study, since historic Cairo established, limestone and woods have been used for building construction alongside. The building materials representingcase studies in historic Cairo are affected by different deterioration factors, such as rising ground water level, the salt weathering, air pollution, frequency between temperatureandrelative humidity, and microbiological deterioration.From case studies survey various types of weathering forms were observed, such as granular disintegration, splitting in the wooden lintel, the efflorescence of salt, pitting in limestone surface, black spots in limestone surface due to microbiological deterioration, black crust and peeling, flaking of painting layers, etc. The aim of this study is to identify on the reciprocal relations ofthe deterioration symptoms in different building materials (limestonewood) used in some of historic Cairo's buildings. The samples were collected from different sites, investigated by several scientific techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), EDX analytical methods, Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIR) to detect the changes of the main wood components (cellulose,, lignin), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Polarizing Light Microscopy (PLM), Stereo Microscopy, and microbiological investigation were also done. The results of the study indicated that there was a fungal infection on the surface of limestone, in particular which is found close to the wooden elements, microbiological investigation was shownthe following fungi:,,,,,. From investigation of wood samples are shown that there is a rise moisture content in the wood materials, due to direct connection between them and adjacent the stones, in addition to crystallized salts found in wood fiber and internal structure of limestone, such as NaCl, CaSO4.2H2O, CaSO4; due to the effect ofbuilding material properties on each other. Furthermore, the physical and mechanical properties tests of building materials indicated that reduction in its properties.


Building materials; deterioration symptoms; limestone; wooden elements; historic Cairo


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