“Governance and Public Awareness” Dilemma in the Conservation of Heritage and Cultural Parks in Egypt

Mennatallah Said Tawfik, Sara Essam Ali
Dealing with heritage in all of its forms is a complex process and comprises many dimensions. Heritage’s scope is wide and folds more than one layer. At the national level, it was found that sharing of interest to heritage is not widely alarmed, especially for historical parks as it faces many challenges related to policies and regulations,
management and evaluation systems, and the operation process. In spite of working as both, open urban areas, historical and valuable cultural spaces; and accordingly the appearances of neglecting the historical and cultural parks are varied, even though it could strongly reflect the community quality of perception and level of interaction
with these urban spaces, which is represented as one of the most important and essential public-spirited aspects.
The paper is tackling the argumentation of urban conservation’s objectives and principles; thinking of public perception
and observations, in relation to public and governance awareness can be considered as two sides of the same coin. The research methodology is focusing on public awareness concern; monitoring and measuring public awareness remains a challenge as it is an intangible phenomenon, and to be raised is vital in heritage conservation plans as it ensures the continuity and sustainability of the urban conservation process.
Public awareness is hypothesized as non-physical vicious loop phenomena, which interacts and is influenced by both tangible and intangible aspects elements. Therefore, the public awareness to be measured and evaluated can be used as a tool to assess the success of current policies – if exist- in dealing with the current condition of heritage
parks and to indicate the variables that could be used to measure, and affect the public and governance awareness with priorities management. Finally, a multi-dimensional assessment method for urban planners, landscaping architects, historical conservation experts, and decision makers could benefit from the outcomes of this study in controlling and defining the management systems and policies to move headed for the conservation of the valuable historic and culture parks in Egypt.

References

Abaza, M. (2006). The changing consumer cultures of modern Egypt, Cairo’s Urban Reshaping. Cairo, Egypt: The American University in Cairo Press

Abdel-Rahman, N. H. (2016). Establishing a Process for Handling Valuable Landscapes: A Comparative Analysis for Managing Historical Parks in Egypt. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 225(November 2015), 376–390. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.06.085

Abe, N., & Didham, R. (2013). Measuring public awareness and actions for 3Rs. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies

Amin, G. A. (2000). Whatever happened to the Egyptians? Changes in Egyptian society from 1950 to the present. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.

Department of Environment and Heritage Protection (August 2015). Guideline Heritage Conservation Management Plans. Queensland Government. Retrieved from: https://www.qld.gov.au/environment/assets/documents/land/heritage/gl-conservation-management-plans.pdf

El-kadi, G. (2012). Cairo, Centre In Movement. Marcella: Institute of Development Research.

Hamdy, R., Abd El-Ghani, M.M., Youssef, T.l. & El-Sayed, M. (2007). The Floristic Composition of Some Historical Botanical Gardens in the Metropolitan of Cairo, Egypt. African Journal of Agricultural Research,2(11) 610–48. Retrieved from: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20083062741.html.

Ma, J. K. (2005). Principles for the Governance of the Heritage Conservation Sector in Canada : Lessons from International Experience, (March).

Nassar, A. (2013). ‘Being’in Al-Azhar Park: Public Spaces in Cairo. Open Urban Studies Journal, 6(1), 65-74.

Salem, S. (2011). Egypt Rises Up-The 2011 Egyptian Revolution: Bread, Freedom, Dignity. The Netherlands: International Institute of Social Studies.

Thani, S. K. S. O., Ibrahim, N. K., Mohamad, N. H. N., & Rodzi, N. I. M. (2015). Public awareness towards conservation of English landscape at Taiping Lake Garden, Malaysia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 168, 181-190. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.223

The Getty Conservation Institute. (2010). Historic Urban Environment. Conservation Challenges and Priorities for Action - Meeting Report. Retrieved from http://www.getty.educonservation/our projects/fieldprojects/historic/experts mtg mar09.pdf

UNESCO Report (2010). The Significance of World Heritage: Origins, Management, Consequences. Confrence presented in Sweden 2010. Dalarna university. Retrieved from: http://whc.unesco.org/en/convention/

Wanas, A. & Samir, E. (2016). Social Mobility and Green Open Urban Spaces with Special Reference to Cairo. Global Built Enviornment Review,10(1).

Wanas, A. (2013). Political Drifts: Implications upon urban space and place with special reference to Cairo, Egypt. Proceedings of the International Conference on ’Cities, People and Places’- ICCPP-2013 Colombo, Sri Lanka, October 15th -16th, 2013. Sri Lanka.