Rebuilding Libya a Bird’s Eye View

Hailana Ben Ali (1)
(1) Architecture and Urban Planning Deptartment, Faculty of Engineering, University of Benghazi, Libya, Libya


There are numerous important human activity factors which cause drastic reduction of the population of migratory birds as well as resident birds in the Libyan coastal areas and inner land too. Resulting into the deterioration of the ecosystems which support life, urban health, and simultaneously causes loss of urban heritage and place identity. The urban sprawl has increased significantly over the past few decades as a result of population growth and economic activity. This rapid urbanization seriously invaded agricultural land and natural environment to the extent of endangering rural and urban landscape. In the absence of legislative regulations; this uncontrolled spatial development is threatening wildlife habitat. Therefore, we see how urban expansion has gone out of control in many Libyan cities to an alarming rate surmounting the increase rate of population caused by extensive economic policies. These policies lack an ecological vision of preservation of cultural and natural heritage which would have ensured the realization of healthy ecosystem and a sustained vision towards the future of rebuilding Libya. This paper aims to identify the relationship between built environment and natural habitat for migratory and resident birds. The paper is using archival research methods by drawing together mortality causes from various sources so that human related factors can be placed in perspective with one another and perhaps, eventually, with other mortality factors in future studies. The paper attempts to shed light on the dangers faced by these birds including those inflicted by human activities. Finally, the paper tries to formalise general outlines for presenting safer urban environment for birds in the city. A strategy for green buildings and sustained urban design in order to preserve the fragile natural landscape and the endangered biological diversity in our Libyan cities.

Full text article

Generated from XML file


Plan of Action to Address Bird Trapping along the Mediterranean Coasts of Egypt and Libya. 2014. p4

Bundy, G. 1976. The Birds of Libya: An annotated check-list. Check-list No. 1, British Ornithologists’ Union, London.

African Bird Club. Libya, Introduction. 2013.

Boere, G.C. & Stroud, D.A. 2006. The flyway concept: what it is and what it isn’t. Waterbirds around the

world. Eds. G.C. Boere, C.A. Galbraith & D.A. Stroud. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 4047.

Atlas of Wintering Waterbirds of Libya data collected from 2005 to 2010.

Standards for Bird-Safe Buildings. SF. SAN FRANCISCO PLANNING DEPARTMENT — ADOPTED JULY 14, 2011.


Mansour Elbabour. 2015. Constitutional Protection for Environmental Rights in Libya. P6 elbabour/29/

Mansour M Elbabour. 2013 Juliana Lake: A Benghazi Wetland In Distress. EGU General Assembly.

Khaled Etayeb- April 2012. Report on restoration and extension of Lake Jeliana islet. Technical Report. Initiative PIM.

. Khaled Etayeb- March 2015. Results of the eighth winter waterbird census in Libya in January 2012. Biodiversity Journal.

Mansour Elbabour . 2012. The changing landscapes of Benghazi. Slideshow.

Sheppard, Christine. 2015. Bird-Friendly Building Design. p8.

Etayeb, K.S. 2002. Study of migratory and resident birds in Ras-Attalgha and western part of Farwa Island. M.Sc. Thesis, Zoology Department, University of Alfateh, Tripoli, Libya.

Golden Gate Audubon

American Bird Conservancy

U.S Fish and Wildlife Service


Hailana Ben Ali
[email protected] (Primary Contact)
Ben Ali, H. (2019). Rebuilding Libya a Bird’s Eye View. ARCHive-SR, 3(1), 38–51.

Article Details