Properties of PMMA Bone Cement Modified with Nano-hydroxyapatite and Acetone


  • Amin Zaza Mechanical Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University
  • Mohamed Habib Mechanical Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University
  • Nabil Fatahalla Mechanical Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al Azhar University



Poly methylmethacrylate, acetone, hydroxyapatite, adjacent fracture, residual monomer, stiffness


Fracture in the adjacent levels is one of the consequences to the use of commercial poly methylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. Modified PMMA with a reduced Young’s modulus was found to be safer for cancellous bone augmentation procedures. The aim of this research was to study the effect of adding hydroxyapatite (HA) nano-particles and acetone on different properties of PMMA cement. A commercial PMMA cement was used as a model for bone cement. Three groups of modified PMMA/nano-HA were investigated by adding 2, 4 and 6 wt. % of HA. Acetone as a porogen mixed with distilled water in different amounts (A/W: 1:1, 2:1.5 and 2:1g) was used to produce porous PMMA cement. The residual monomer, polymerization and mechanical properties under tension and compression tests were investigated. Young’s modulus detected from compression test decreased from 826.5±10 to 728±66 MPa by adding 6wt.% HA. Adding acetone to PMMA with 2:1.5g (A/W) has decreased the compressive Young’s modulus to 753±38 MPa. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) measurements were carried out with intervals of 2 hours, 6 hours and 24 hours to evaluate the residual monomer for all groups. The amount of residual monomer has decreased after 24 hours of curing by adding acetone and nano-HA. Modifying PMMA by HA and acetone have inconsistent effect on the polymerization temperature. It was concluded that HA and acetone can be used to reduce the stiffness and residual monomer with enhanced biocompatibility of the commercial PMMA bone cement.


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How to Cite

Zaza, A., Habib, M., & Fatahalla, N. (2019). Properties of PMMA Bone Cement Modified with Nano-hydroxyapatite and Acetone. The Academic Research Community Publication, 2(4), 440–447.