i. CASTLE .HELEN, MATERIAL SYNTHESIS, Fusing the Physical and the Computational. September/October 2015. Profile No 237. p:5
ii. Beorkrem .Christopher , MATERIAL STRATEGIES IN DIGITAL FABRICATION, 2013 by Routledge.P:8
iii. MENGES. ACHIM, MATERIAL SYNTHESIS, Fusing the Physical and the Computational. September/October, 2015. Profile No. 237. p:9
v. Bloszies ,Charles, Old Buildings, New Designs. Architectural transformation, 2012, Princeton Architectural Press, 1st edn ,p:41, downloaded from: https://issuu.com/vladimirchuzhinov/docs/oldbuildings.
vi. Text from Ibid.p:41.Photos;left; http://matthewwilliamsellis.photoshelter.com/image/I0000cuOG riI0eI Middle: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:2781_-_Siracusa_-_Duomo_-_Navata_centrale_-_Foto_Giovanni_Dall%27Orto_-_22-May-2008.jpg Right: http://www.paradoxplace.com/Perspectives/Sicily%20&%20S%20Italy/Montages/Sicily/Siracusa/S
vii. MENGES. ACHIM, MATERIAL SYNTHESIS, Fusing the Physical and the Computational. September/October, 2015. Profile No 237.p:13.
viii. Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding, usually at normal or room temperature, environment. This is achieved through either absorption or adsorption with the absorbing or adsorbing substance becoming physically changed somewhat. This could be by an increase in volume, boiling point, viscosity or other physical characteristic and properties of the substance, as water molecules can become suspended between the substance’s molecules in the process
ix. Ibid p:68
x. Ibid p:68
xi. Louis Isadore Kahn: From 1957 until his death, he was a professor of architecture at the School of
Design at the University of Pennsylvania. Kahn created a style that was monumental and monolithic; his
heavy buildings for the most part do not hide their weight, their materials, or the way they are assembled. Louis Kahn’s works are considered as monumental beyond modernism. Famous for his meticulously built
works, his provocative proposals that remained inbuilt, and his teaching, Kahn was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century. He was awarded the AIA Gold Medal and the RIBA Gold Medal. At the time of his death he was considered by some as ”America’s foremost living architect.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Louis_Kahn
xiii. Yuan,Philip.,PARAMETRICISM 2.0 . Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, March/April 2016, Profile No. 240,P:93.
xiv. Schumacher, Patrik, The Autopoiesis of Architecture, Vol I: A New Framework of Architecture, John
Wiley & Sons (Chichester), 2011, pp 5–8.
xv. Sheil .Bob, and Glynn. Ruairi, Fabricate: Making Digital Architecture, Riverside Architectural Press
(Toronto), 2012, pp 30–35
xvi. Hensel .Michael, Sunguroglu. Defne, and Menges. Achim, ‘Material Performance’, Versatility and
Vicissitude: Performance in Morpho-Ecological Design, March/April (no 2), 2008, pp 34–41
xvii. Philip Yuan: is Associate Professor at the Architecture and Planning Institute of Tongji University,
Shanghai, Director of Archi-Union Architects, and a member of the Shanghai Urban & Planning Consultant Community.
xviii. Picon .Antoine, Digital Culture in Architecture, Birkhauser (Basel), 2010, pp 30–35. ¨
xixYuan,Philip.,PARAMETRICISM 2.0 . Rethinking Architecture’s Agenda for the 21st Century, ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN, March/April 2016, Profile No. 240,P:94.
xx. Michael Hansmeyer is a post-modern architect who utilizes algorithmic architecture techniques, generative art mentalities, and CAD software to generate complex structures. He is currently based in the CAAD group at ETH’s architecture department in Zurich. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael Hansmeyer
xxi. http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/digital grotesque info.html?screenSize=1&color=1