Buildings Orientation and its Impact on the Energy Consumption

Rania E. Ashmawy, Neveen Y. Azmy
Nowadays, many countries suffer from severe shortage of energy resources and the
inability of saving it. It is necessary to develop an integrated strategy, to make buildings
consume less energy and to integrate active and passive design techniques.
Since the building orientation is one of the most important factors affecting energy
consumption, this paper addresses the effect of building orientation on the amount of
energy consumption within buildings. We employ the simulator "Energy-plus" to estimate energy consumption annually and during critical months in summer and winter.
To obtain the best orientation for maximum energy saving, different orientations are
tested. It is found that an air-conditioned building that has a southern facade consumes
less energy. However, a western facade causes higher annual energy consumption by
26% over the southern facade. In the case of a two-facade building, the lowest energy
consumption is obtained between the northern and southern orientations in Cairo, Egypt.


Algohary, S., (2002) “The Importance Of Energy and Environmental Aspects In The Design Of Solar Passive Building”, Doctor Degree, Ain Shams University.

Anđelković, A. S., Mujan, I., & Dakić, S. (2016). Experimental validation of a EnergyPlus model: Application of a multi-storey naturally ventilated double skin façade. Energy and Buildings, 118, 27-36.

Ashmawy, R.E., (2015), Establish a sustainable strategies for low energy building. Master thesis, faculty engineering. Tanta University

David, M., Donn, M., Garde, F., & Lenoir, A. (2011). Assessment of the thermal and visual efficiency of solar shades. Building and Environment,46(7), 1489-1496.

Eben Saleh, M. A. (1990). Thermal insulation of buildings in a newly built environment of a hot dry climate: the Saudi Arabian experience. International Journal of Ambient Energy, 11(3), 157-168

Energy Design Tools. (n.d.). Retrieved from

EnergyPlus. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Givoni, B. (1991). Performance and applicability of passive and low-energy cooling systems. Energy and buildings, 17(3), 177-199

Goia, F. (2016). Search for the optimal window-to-wall ratio in office buildings in different European climates and the implications on total energy saving potential. Solar Energy, 132, 467-492.

Hasanin, T. G. H. (2000). Trains of urban development in Egypt, update evaluation for the experience of new urban communities.

Marszal, A. J., Heiselberg, P., Bourrelle, J. S., Musall, E., Voss, K., Sartori, I., & Napolitano, A. (2011). Zero Energy Building–A review of definitions and calculation methodologies. Energy and buildings, 43(4), 971-979

Morrissey, J., Moore, T., & Horne, R. E. (2011). Affordable passive solar design in a temperate climate: An experiment in residential building orientation. Renewable Energy, 36(2), 568-577.

Pai, M. Y. (2015). Effect of Building Orientation and Window Glazing on the Energy Consumption of HVAC System of an Office Building for Different Climate Zones. International Journal of Engineering Research Technology (IJERT), 4(9), 838-843.

Paul, T. (2001). Passive Solar Design for the Home

Pérez-Lombard, L., Ortiz, J., & Pout, C. (2008). A review on buildings energy consumption information. Energy and buildings, 40(3), 394-398.

Sadineni, S. B., Madala, S., & Boehm, R. F. (2011). Passive building energy savings: A review of building envelope components. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(8), 3617-3631.

Shick, W.L.,(2009). Effects of building orientation on energy savings", Small homes council– Building Research Council, University of Illinois, Champaign.

Vanhoutteghem, L., Skarning, G. C. J., Hviid, C. A., & Svendsen, S. (2015). Impact of façade window design on energy, daylighting and thermal comfort in nearly zero-energy houses. Energy and Buildings, 102, 149-156.

Copyright (c) 2018 Rania E. Ashmawy, Neveen Y. Azmy Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.