Enhancing the Quality of Urban Life in Urban Poverty Areas through a Strategy of Integral Multi Approaches: Public Spaces as Arena for Change

Ahmed Elewa
Urban poverty areas (UPA) in the main cities of the emerging and developing countries are representing the product of a chaotic urban-isation process. This process started through the recent decades as a result of the economic reform in many Emerging countries, mainly in Asia, South America, and some cases in Africa such as Egypt and South Africa. Under the umbrella of the term UPA, there are many other terms such as slums, shantytowns and informal urbanism. In this study, the focus is on a special case of UPA which exist in the main cities of the emerging countries and some cases of developing countries. These UPA have some of the slums characteristics, which indicate the low quality of the urban life such as the pollution of the urban environment, the high density of built up area and the lack of social spaces. However, these areas mainly consist of permanent buildings which were built in most cases by the dwellers themselves due to their basic socio-economic needs, also in most of the cases the basic infrastructure are available. The study hypothesis is discussing the possibility of enhancing the quality of urban life in those UPA through a strategy of integral mul-ti approaches based on the potential opportunities of public spaces. In other words, the key to a successful strategy is “integration”, meaning that all approaches, policies, and projects are considered in relation to one another. This includes the using of new approaches such as green infrastructure (GI) through an integration framework with the other prevalent urban approaches such as participatory, towards innova-tively interactive urban communities. An analytical comparative study was done based on qualitative methods by studying various case studies of UPA in main cities of emerging and developing countries that were up-graded through a strategy of integral multi approaches. These rely on the public spaces as a medium for change, as well the using of quantitative and qualitative methods through actual case studies. The results represent lessons from practice. Based on actual cases, the cumulative urban experiences through various selected cases of upgrading UPA showed that the success depends on the using of an integral approach (multi-disciplinary) that relies on livable innovative public spaces. The new approaches such as GI cannot stand alone, but the strategies can be efficient by using integral an multi approach strategy. The cases also showed that public spaces in UPA are cen-ters of the daily socioeconomic activities, which is why these areas can act as arenas for change, towards better quality of urban life.

References

Amis, P., (1995) “Making sense of poverty, Urban poverty: characteristics, causes and consequence”, Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 7 No 1, pp 145-159

Angel, S., Sheppard, S., Civco, D., Buckley, R., Chabaeva, Gitlin, L., Kraley, A., Parent, J. & Perlin, M. (2005), The Dynamics of Global Urban Expansion, Transport and Urban Development Department The World Bank Washington D.C

Bacon, E. (1976), Design of Cities, New York: Penguin Books.

Baker, J., (1995), ‘Survival and accumulation strategies at the rural-urban interface in north-west Tanzania, ‘Urban poverty: Characteristics, causes and consequences’, Environment and Urbanization, Vol. 7 No 1

Bosomworth, K. Trundle, A. and McEvoy, D. (2013), Responding to the Urban Heat Island: A Policy and Institutional Analysis, final report, Victorian center for climate change adaptation research.

Chiesura, A. (2004), The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and Urban Planning, pp 68, 129‐38.

Cybriwsky, R. (1999), Changing Patterns of Urban Public Space: Observations and Assessments from the Tokyo and New York Metropolitan Area, Cities, 16(4): 223-231.

Darin-Drabkin, H. (1977), Land Policy and Urban Growth, Urban and regional planning series, volume 16, Oxford: Pergamum Press.

Davis, M. (2006), Planet of slums, First published by Verso 2006, London.

El-Khishin, K., (2006), Cairo’s Al-Azhar Park: Millenium Development Goals Etched In Green, , faculty of engineering, BENHA university, Egypt, planning Malaysia, Journal of the Malaysian institute of planners iv, pp 23 – 30

Garcia, J. (2013), Publics Spaces in informal settlements. The Barrios of Bogota, Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Gebre-Egziabher, T., (2010), Livelihood and urban poverty reduction in Ethiopia, perspectives from small and big towns, Organization of social science research in Eastern and southern Africa (OSSREA)

Hardoy, J., Mitlin, D. & Satterthwaite, D., (1992), Environmental Problems in Third World Cities, London: Earth scan

Loughhead, S. et al., 2001, Urban Poverty and Vulnerability in India. New Delhi: Department for International Development (DID).

Lynch, K. (1960), The Image of the City. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

Madanipour, A. (1996), Design of urban space, an inquiry into socio-spatial process, John Wiley & Sons.

Magalhães, F. & Di Villarosa, F., (2012), Slum upgrading, lessons learned from Brazil, Inter-American Development Bank. Washington, D.C.

Malone, K. (2002) ‘Street life: youth, culture and competing uses of public space, Environment and Urbanization, 14, pp 157-68.

Masika, R. & Baden, S., (1997), ‘Infrastructure and poverty: a gender analysis’, BRIDGE Report No 51, Brighton: Institute of Development Studies

Mitlin, D., (2004), Understanding Urban Poverty; What the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers Tell Us. Human Settlements Working Paper Series Poverty Reduction in Urban Areas No. 13. IIED, London

Mitlin, D., & Satherthwaite, D., (2004), Empowering Squatter Citizen: Local Government, Civil Society and Urban Poverty Reduction, Routledge Press, New York.

Moser, C. & Holland, J., (1995), A participatory study of urban poverty and violence in Jamaica: summary finding, Washington D.C.: Urban Development Division, World Bank.

Moser, C., M. Gatehouse, & H. Garcia. (1996). Urban Poverty Research Sourcebook Module I: Sub-City Level Household Survey. Urban Management Program Working Paper Series 5. UNDP/UNCHS (Habitat)/World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Moor, M., & Rowland, J. (2006), Urban design futures, Chapter 2, Globalizing urban design, The development world context, pp 30-36.

Potts, D. (2011). Shanties, slums, breeze blocks and bricks: Misunderstandings about informal housing demolitions in Zimbabwe. City, 15(6), pp 709-721.

Satterthwaite, D., (1995), ‘Viewpoint - the underestimation of urban poverty and of its health consequences’, Third World Planning Review, Vol. 17 No 4.

Internet references;

Al-Azhar Park, Cairo and the Revitalization of Darb Al-Ahmar (2005), Project Brief, the Agha Khan Trust for Culture. Retrieved September 20, 2016, from file:///C:/Users/hp/Downloads/2007_aktc_egypt.pdf

Aslan, R., (2006), Rescuing Cairo's Lost Heritage, Islamica Magazine, Retrieved October14 20, 2016, from http://web.archive.org /web/20061026205029/http://www.islamicamagazine.com/issue-15/rescuing-cairos-lost-heritage.html

Baharoglu, D. & Kessides, C., (2001), “Urban poverty” in World Bank, PRSP Sourcebook, World Bank, Washington DC. Retrieved September 20, 2016, from http:// www.worldbank.org/poverty/strategies/sourcetoc.htm

EU. (1994), Community plant variety rights, Council Regulation (EC) No 2100/94, Retrieved September 23, 2016, from http://www.wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/eu/eu011en.pdf

EU. (2007), LEIPZIG CHARTER on Sustainable European Cities, Retrieved September 23, 2016, from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/archive/themes/urban/leipzig_charter.pdf

ILO, (1996), ‘Social exclusion and anti-poverty strategies’, research findings on the patterns and causes of social exclusion and the design of policies to promote integration, ILO, Geneva Retrieved September 22, 2016, from http://staging.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ilo/1996/96B09_406_engl.pdf

Roth, I., Just cities (2012), The World's Problems Need Urban Solutions, Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Berlin, Germany. Retrieved September 19, 2016, from http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/iez/global/08893.pdf

UNEP &UN-HABITAT, Goal 11 Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable (Updated on 3 March 2016). Retrieved September 22, 2016, from http://un stats.un.org/ sdgs/ files/metadata-compilation/Metadata-Goal-11.pdf

UN-HABITAT & OHCHR. (2002). Housing rights legislation. Nairobi: UN-HABITAT, United Nations Housing Rights Programme Report No. 1, Series of publications in support of the Global Campaign for Secure Tenure No. 05, Retrieved September 24, 2016, from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/

HousingRightsen.pdf

Urban remediation and civic infrastructure hub (2012), centro de acção social por Música Grotao, Paraisopolis Sao Paulo Brazil, Retrieved October 15, 2016, from http:// download. holcimfoundation.org/1/docs/A12/A12GLsiBR/A12GLsiBR-posterlow.pdf

World Bank Report (2007), Jharkhand: Addressing the Challenges of Inclusive Development, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management India Country Management Unit, South Asia. Retrieved September 28, 2016, from http:// unstats.un.org/sdgs

/files/metadata-compilation/Metadata-Goal-11.pdf

World urban forum - Rio de Janeiro (2010), Networking Evenet: Upgrading informal settlements through socio-ecologic Infrastructure Provision, Retrieved October 15, 2016, from https://www.ihs.nl/fileadmin/ASSETS/ihs/WUF_V/WUF_urbaninform_DirtyWorks_projects_100330.pdf

Worpole, K., & Knox, K. (2007), The social value of public spaces, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Retrieved September 20, 2016, from http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/2050-public-space-community.pdf

Copyright (c) 2018 Resourceedings