Human-centered transportation (walking and biking) has been the cheapest, healthiest, and most convenient mode of transportation throughout history. In the new global economy, walking and biking have become common modes of transportation for low-income groups of people. Kabul is the biggest city in Afghanistan with scattered space organizations and currently is unfavorable for walking and biking due to insufficient attention to pedestrian and bicycle routes in city planning and poor road network and sidewalk conditions, which are among the issues that affect this 4-5 million population city. The purpose of this research is to analyze the current traffic situation in Kabul and identify the role and share of citizens' use of human-centered transportation (walking and biking) for transportation. This research also aims to investigate the relationship between the economic scope of low-income workers and the use of walking and biking for transportation. The statistical population of the current study was selected from three municipal districts as travel zones. Using cluster sampling, a sample participant of 929 people was obtained. It was observed that in the broad context, due to increasing cost and insufficient public transportation, low-income workers use bicycles and walking as a reliable mode of transportation. Finally, it is suggested that the spatial organization of Kabul is redefined and designed based on the new space organization, and the local organization and formulation of urban transportation strategies in urban strategic plans for pedestrian and bicycle transportation systems are strengthened, especially for roads leading to employment locations. Furthermore, in planning, priority is to be shifted to human-centered transportation (walking and biking).
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