Artificial wetlands as a key for the construction of new sustainable urban systems

Authors

  • Giovany Albarracin Professor of Catholic University of Cuenca, Ecuador
  • Christian Contreras Student of Ph.D. University of Girona, España
  • Angel Puga Student of Catholic University of Cuenca, Ecuador

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.21625/archive.v6i1.876

Keywords:

Artificial Wetlands, Sustainable Development, Ecological Processes, Wasterwater Treatment

Abstract

Along the water route, man and nature interact intimately. The flow and occupation of the water route led to a relationship that emerged naturally within its logic. However, based on a deep understanding of complex and dynamic ecological processes, the relationship between man and natural processes has changed. Control and centralization buried these processes through a system of invisible infrastructures, causing a disconnection between the water path and the landscape's ecological processes. Providing clean water and an adequate sanitation system does not represent great complexity. While essential technologies and engineering principles have been mastered, it is striking that more than one billion people in the world still lack access to clean water, and almost two billion struggle with inadequate wastewater treatment. Furthermore, water-related diseases are the leading cause of premature death in developing countries. In searching for a solution to water sources and soil pollution, we propose exploring Artificial Wetlands (AW) as Nature-Based Solutions (NBS). These solutions provide environmental, social, and economic benefits. The research focuses on a hydraulic sanitation system disconnected from the central network. This system includes designing a system of artificial wetlands to treat wastewater produced by direct discharges to streams and rivers and proposes an AW in Sinincay (peripheral parish), where 42% of their territory does not have a wastewater treatment system. The results show that this phytoremediation technique is a passive and aesthetically pleasing cleaning practice that utilizes plants and solar energy to treat polluted waters. Thus, it is imperative to rethink sanitation concepts in order to integrate constructing infrastructures, ecological functions, and accessible spaces for people as a new alternative to a sustainable urban system.

References

AA.VV. (2014). Cuenca ciudad sostenible / Plan de acción. In Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

Acero Caballero, G., Aguirre Such, J., Arévalo Martín, J., Rodríguez, D., Romero Fernández de Larrea, I., Paisaje Transversal, & Hernández Martínez, P. (2019). Planificación urbana integral, aprendiendo de Europa. 186. https://www1.diba.cat/llibreria/pdf/62439.pdf

Allen, A. (2003). Environmental planning and management of the peri-urban interface: perspectives on an emerging field. Environment and Urbanization, 15, 135–148.

Arias Martínez, S. A., Betancur Toro, F. M., Gómez Rojas, G., Salazar Giraldo, J. P., & Hernández Ángel, M. L. (2010). Fitorremediación con humedales artificiales para el tratamiento de aguas residuales porcinas. Informador Técnico (Colombia), 74, 12–22.

Ariza Montobio, P. (2013). Large - Escale. Renewable Energy ? A Transdiciplinary view on conflicts and trade - off in the implementation of renewable energy. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona.

Arola, F. (2014). Metodología para el análisis y gestión del espacio periurbano en ciudades intermedias: Cuenca como caso de estudio. 1–61.

Avila Sánchez, H. (2001). Ideas y planteamientos teóricos sobre los territorios periurbanos: Las relaciones campo-ciudad en algunos países de Europa y América. Investigaciones Geográficas, 45, 108–127.

Ballén-Velásquez, L. (2014). “Desbordando” la categoría de borde. Revista Bitácora Urbano Territorial, 24(2), 31–39. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=74833911014

Ballet, C. Llop, J. M. (2004). Miradas a otros espacios urbanos: Las ciudades intermedias . VIII, 1–13(108), 1–13.

Boelens, R., Hoogesteger, J., Swyngedouw, E., Vos, J., & Wester, P. (2016). Hydrosocial territories: a political ecology perspective. Water International, 41(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508060.2016.1134898

Burbano, D., Di Campli, A., Rodriguez, N., & Solórzano, M. (2017). Transiciones Territoriales : reflexiones teóricas tras un concepto.

Busquets, J., & Sola Morales, M. (1999). La Urbanización marginal. Edicions UPC.

Clark, B., & Foster, J. B. (2010). The dialectic of social and ecological metabolism: Marx, Mészáros, and the absolute limits of capital. Socialism and Democracy, 24 (2), 124–138.

Corboz, A., & Marot, S. (2001). Le Territoire comme palimpseste et autres essais. Ed. de l’Imprimeur. http://cataleg.upc.edu/record=b1208803~S1*cat

Córdova, J., Contreras, C., & Albarracin, G. (2020). Territorio Hidrosocial de la ciudad de Cuenca - Ecuador. El Derecho a La Ciudad y El Territorio. XI Simposio Nacional de Desarrollo Urbano y X Congreso de Ordenamiento Territorial y Ecológico, 1, 631–649.

Delgadillo-lópez, A. E., & González-ramírez, C. A. (2011). Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 14 (2011): 597- 612. 14, 597–612.

Delgado, C. (2008). “Urbanización sin fronteras” el acoso urbanístico a los espacios naturales protegidos. Boletin de La Asociacion de Geografos Espanoles, 47, 271–310.

Forman, R. T. T. (1995). Land mosaics : the ecology of landscapes and regions / Richard T. T. Forman. Cambridge University Press,. https://discovery.upc.edu/iii/encore/record/C__Rb1158175__SRichard Forman__Orightresult__U__X2;jsessionid=788109F4388443339C41E4AAA8DCD0E9?lang=cat

Foster, J. B. (2004). La Ecología de Marx. Materialismo y Naturaleza. El viejo Topo. España.

Galindo, J., & Giocoli, A. (2012). Los bordes de la ciudad metropolitana : Apuntes para repensar la ciudad.

Gandy, M. (2004). Rethinking urban metabolism: water, space and the modern city. City, 8(3), 363–379. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360481042000313509

Gopal, B. (1999). Natural and constructed wetlands for wastewater treatement: Potentials and problems. Water Science and Technology, 40(3), 27–35. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Harvey, D. (1996). Justice, Nature and the Geography of Difference. Blackwell.

Heyden, N. (2003). The Scalar Production of Injustice within the Urban Forest. Antipode, 5, 980–998.

Isch, E. (2011). Contaminación de las Aguas y Políticas para Enfrentarla. Foro de Los Recursos Hídricos, 1, 52. https://bit.ly/3bKvXWa

Kaika, M. (2003). Constructing Scarcity and Sensationalising Water Politics: 170 days that shook Athens. Antipode, 35, 919–954.

Kennedy, C., Cuddihy, J., & Engel-Yan, J. (2007). The Changing Metabolism of Cities. Industrial Ecology, 11, Number, 17.

Odum, H. (1971). Environment, Power , and Society for the Twenty - First Century. The Hierarchy of Energy. Columbia University Press.

Oyon, J. L. (2011). Disperción frente a compacidad.pdf.

Pakariñan. (2015). Actualización Plan de Desarrollo y Ordenación Territorial - Sinincay - 2015.

Piorr, A., Tosics, I., & Ravetz, J. (2011). Peri-urbanisation in Europe: Towards a European Policy to sustain Urban-Rural Futures. Forest & Landscape University of Copenhagen.

Reclus, É., & Guazzelli, E. (2001). El Arroyo. Media Vaca.

Stokman, A. (2008). Water Purificative Landscapes – Constructed Ecologies and Contemporary Urbanism.

Swyngedouw, E. (2004). Social Power and the Urbanization of Water. Flows of Power. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Swyngedouw, E. (2006a). Circulations and metabolisms : ( Hybrid ) Natures and ( Cyborg ) cities. Science as Culture, 15, 105–121.

Swyngedouw, E. (2006b). Human Development Report 2006 Human Development Report Office Power , Water and Money : Exploring the Nexus. Human Development, April.

Swyngedouw, E., & Cook, I. (2010). Cities, social cohesion and the environment. Social Survey Paper, 1–53.

Swyngedouw, E., & Kaika, M. (2014). Urban Political Ecology: Great promises, deadlock and new beginnings ? Geografica, 60(3).

Tacoli, C. (1998). Rural-urban interactions : a guide to the literature. 10(1), 147–166.

Timmeren, A. van. (2014). The Concept of the Urban Metabolism (UM). Suet, 1–18.

Toledo, V. (2008). Metabolismos rurales: hacia una teoría económico - ecológica de la apropiación de la naturaleza. Redibec, 7, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1109/APS.2016.7695721

Tzaninis, Y., Mandler, T., Kaika, M., & Keil, R. (2020). Moving urban political ecology beyond the ‘urbanization of nature’’.’ Progress in Human Geography, 2049. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132520903350

UN-HABIT. (2015). Issue Papers and Policy Units of the Habitat Iii Conference. April.

Viganò, P., Secchi, B., & Lorenzo, F. (2016). Water and Asphalt. The project of isotropy. Park Books, Zurich, Zwitzerland.

Downloads

Published

2022-07-31

How to Cite

Albarracin, G., Contreras, C., & Puga, A. (2022). Artificial wetlands as a key for the construction of new sustainable urban systems. The Academic Research Community Publication, 6(1), 12–22. https://doi.org/10.21625/archive.v6i1.876