City Marketing & Urban Branding: A New Way to Identify Egyptian Cities through Creating Positive Public Mental Image

Doha Bassem

Globalization contains new areas of research that still under development. Among these research is urban branding. It’s an alternative for countries to promote and rebuild their image in order to attract business and tourism. The public mental image is the first engine to, attract develop and improve the place in consumer mind. It is a catalyst picture of urban design and manufacture of urban branding. The paper will study Advertising Campaigns on the Egyptian cities that carries distinctive mental image of its urban (physical, cultural, social, economic and urban elements) at the whole city. The city contains urban elements those elements are not individual, but related to each other creating the city limits physically and symbolically.


Urban Development; Mental Image; City Marketing; Nation Branding; Urban Branding & Marketing Campaign


Karavazaki, S. (2013). Visible Cities: The Role of Place Branding for a Sustainable Urban Development in

European Cities at a Time of Crisis: A Case Study.

Briciu, V. A. (2013). Differences between place branding and destination branding for local brand strategy development. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Bras¸ov, Series VII: Social Sciences and Law, (1), 9-14.

Papp-Vary, ´ A. (2011). The Anholt-GMI city brand hexagon and the saffron European city brand barometer: A comparative study. Regional and Business Studies, 3(1).

Kaneva, N. (2011). Nation branding: Toward an agenda for critical research. International journal of

communication, 5, 25.

Englund, G. (2012). Nation Branding: A Brand New Marketing Tool on the Global Arena(Unpublished

Bachelor’s thesis). Stockholm School Of Economics Department of Marketing and Strategy.

Dijkstra, L., & Poelman, H. (2012). Cities in Europe: the new OECD-EC definition. Regional focus, 1, 1-13.

Fan, Y. (2013). Branding The Nation: Towards A Better Understanding. Brunel Business School Brunel University Uxbridge, London.

Blattberg, R. C., Briesch, R., & Fox, E. J. (1995). How promotions work. Marketing science, 14(3 supplement), G122-G132.

Van den Berg, L., Van de Meer, J., Oligaar, A. (2006). The attractive city: Catalyst of Sustainable Urban


Bahrainy, H., & Bakhtiar, A. (2016). Toward an integrative theory of urban design. Springer International Publishing.

El Sakka, S. (2016). Sustainability as an Effective Tool for a Place Branding: An Application on El Gouna

City, Egypt. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development,7(11), 861.

Bacon, E, N. (1974). Design of Cities. Viking Press: New York.

Koeck, R., & Roberts, L. (Eds.). (2010). The City and the Moving Image: Urban Projections. Springer.

Abdelaal, M. R., & Hussein, R. M. (2012). Branding Urban Spaces as an Approach for City Branding-Case

study: Cairo City, Egypt. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of

Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, 6(11), 3022-3030.

Heiba, F. I. (2011). Future Global Marketing Negotiations: A Strategic Scenario. International Journal of

Business and Social Science, 2(4).

Braun, E. E. (2008). City Marketing: Towards an integrated approach.

Belloso, J. C. (2011). The city branding of Barcelona: a success story. In City Branding (pp. 118-123). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Dinnie, K. (2010). City branding: Theory and cases. Springer.

Gonzalez, S. (2011). Bilbao and Barcelona ‘in motion’. How urban regeneration ‘models’ travel and mutate in the global flows of policy tourism. Urban studies, 48(7), 1397-1418.

Alvarez Martinez, O. (2010). Branding Spain: analyzing the organizations behind the image of Spain in


Rehan, R. M. (2014). Urban branding as an effective sustainability tool in urban development. HBRC

Journal, 10(2), 222-230.

Kotler, P. (2000). Marketing management: The millennium edition. Marketing Management, 23(6), 188-193.

Anholt, S. (2011). 17. Beyond the nation brand: The role of image and identity in international relations. A. Pike, Brands and Branding Geographies, 289.

Gfkamerica. (2010, March 31). GfK Place-Based and Alternative eCommerce Search Engine Marketing

Research. Retrieved from areas/roper pam/nbi index/index.en.html

Anholt, S. (2007). Growth from Knowledge. Retrieved from

Cairobserver. (2013, February 23). Concepts in city branding. Retrieved from

McDermott, L. (n.d.). The Best Of... Tourism Marketing Campaigns. Retrieved from

Bouwkamp, J. G., & Blohm, J. K. (1966). Dynamic response of a two-story steel frame structure. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 56(6), 1289-1303.

Newmark , N.M. & Resenblueth E. (1971). Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering. Prentice – Hall Inc.Englewood cliffs.

Caravani, P., and Thomson, W. T. (1973). Identification of Damping Coefficients from System Response. In Proceedings of the Fifth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Rome, Italy.

Penzien, J., & Ruiz, P. (1969). Probabilistic study of behaviour of structures during earthquakes. In Earthquake Engineering Research Center (pp. 3-69). University of California Berkeley, CA.

Informs. (2012). INFORMS. Retrieved from

Ibrahim, M. (2012). A parametric study on (Doctoral dissertation, Msc. thesis, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt)

Copyright (c) 2019 The Academic Research Community publication Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.