The Impact of Western Culture on the Transformation of Residential Patterns in One of the Heritage Areas in Baghdad (Neighborhood CREMAT / Salhiya - Baghdad Model)

Shatha A. Alamiri, Doaa M. Alzubaidy
The traditional housing of Baghdadi has undergone many transformations in the past century. This is noticed in many districts of traditional Baghdad and its heritage. In this period, architectural styles with Western influences were observed as a result of the political conditions and foreign colonization that swept the country. German architecture, English and French and other models in our old heritage stores, especially in the neighborhood of CREMAT in Salhia - Baghdad. With this level of complexity of the models, we have to disclose and study during the research process to reach the mechanisms and adaptation of Western models designed for an environment of a different nature adapted to our environment and the local Baghdad and take advantage of these global experiences in the design process. Therefore, the research highlighted the influence of Western culture on our Baghdadi architectural culture to preserve the landmarks of the past so that future children can see it. Ever since man's historical awareness of the past, the present and the future, he tried to record his present and preserve his past for the future. The urban heritage reflects the cultural identity of man: his past, his present and his future. Our Baghdad Municipality has been characterized by functional organization of the elements of the house, relying on the internal courtyard to provide the necessary privacy to the population and the use of local construction materials such as bricks, plaster, stone and palms and the use of the sheds in the internal atmosphere of the rooms. All examples of Baghdadi heritage architecture share a distinctive architectural character that belongs to the region and reflects all of its cultural, environmental and social conditions. Therefore, the research will try to reach the impact of these civilizations on the Baghdadi style, especially in the residential architecture of Baghdad. The objective of the research was to describe the effects of Western culture on the architectural style of the Salhia area and its adaptation to the local style of the region while attempting to come up with new and traditional indicators of transformation in residential patterns. In order to address the research problem, which is the phenomenon of divergence in the decisions of the traditional residential patterns in the locality of the CREMAT - Salhia, and to verify the goal of the desired research, the research plan is to analyze the chronological sequence of the ancient models in the region and identifying the identity of each model and then how to diagnose changes in traditional architectural styles through its holistic calendar and the appearance of the architectural style of the Salhia in this architectural form. The results showed the impact of Western cultures on the identity of the Baghdad residential area.

Keywords

Baghdadi residential patterns, traditional architectural style, chronology of Western styles in Baghdadi architecture, transformations of Baghdadi residential patterns.

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